Skip to main content

Full text of "Voyages of the slavers St. John and Arms of Amsterdam, 1659, 1663 : together with additional papers illustrative of the slave trade under the Dutch"

See other formats

Interattg of pittfibur^Ij 

'Darlington Memorial Library 


New York Colonial Tra&s, 

Number III. 

anti Ermg of Etnistertiam, 



^I. I?o|n flnb Erms of Eins(Friiain, 

1659, 1663; 


Additional Papers illujirative of the Slave 
Trade under the Dutch. 


Jintratructioit antr Kntru% 






Edition, lOO Copies. 



N THE Trad: now pub- 
lirhed, we have collected and 
tranllated the Papers in the 
Secretary of State's Office, 
illuftrative of Slavery and the Slave 
Trade under the Dutch. As the 
Documents are authentic, they fur- 
nifh reliable Material for a Chapter 
in the early Hiftory of our State at 
prefent unwritten, and hitherto but 
partially known. 

vi IntroduBion. 

To the Dutch undoubtedly be- 
longs the queftionable Diftind:ion 
of having introduced Negro Slavery 
into the Colonies, now the United 
States of America. " About the laft 
smxtvs General of Auguft " ( 1 6 1 9), fays 'J ohn Rolfe, 

Hijiory of Vir- 

^/«/a,Ed.i627, the celebrated Hufband of Pocahon- 

P. 126, Rich- 
mond Ed., \i,fas, writing from Virginia, "came 

in a Dutch man of warre, that fold 
vs twenty Negars." * Oldfuixon re- 
fers to the fame Event, but leaves 

* This Event is generally ftated to have occurred 
in 1620; but a careful Perufal of Smith fhows that 
it took place in 16 19. Mr. Bancroft, Hijl. U. S., 
I ft Ed., I, 189, quotes Beverley as the original 
Authority for this Fadl. Beverley only copied Capt. 
Smith, without acknowledging the Source of his In- 
formation; of which Circumftance Mr. Bancroft 
does not appear to have been aware. 


IntroduElion. vii 

the Impreffion that the VelTel was 

a Merchantman. "The Merchant 5"V# EmfWe 

in America, Ed. 

fold 20 Negroes, which were the firft 1741, i, 369- 
Slaves that were brought thither (to 
Virginia) from Guinea.'' 

At this Period a Clafs of Adven- 
turers, called " Guinea Traders," 
reforted to Africa; another Clafs, 
called " Virginia Traders," reforted 
to America. One or other of thefe, 
it is fuppofed, landed the above 
mentioned Negroes. 

In 1 62 1, all the Dutch private 
Companies trading to Africa and 
America were merged into one — 
the celebrated Weft India Com- 

viii IntroduSiion, 

pany — which, by Virtue of its 
Charter, raifed Troops, fitted out 
Men-of-War, and made other Pre- 
parations for entering the Field 
againft Spain. This Power had, at 
that time, the almoft entire Con- 
trol of the Trade of Africa^ from 
which Country it imported into 
Brazil^ during the four Years end- 
2).ia«,>.r-ing 1623, Fifteen thoufand, four 
192. ' hundred and thirty Blacks, to work 
its Sugar Plantations. 

In 1623, the Weft India Com- 
pany commenced Hoftilities, which 
. it continued with confiderable Vigor 
for feveral Years. At firft, how- 

IntroduBion, ix 

ever, it placed no Value on the 
Negroes it captured from the Span- 
iards ; for in 1624, Admiral Fan 
Dort having overhauled, off the 
Coafl: of Brazil, a Spanifli Veffel 
carrying Blacks from Angola to 
Bahia, took the Skipper and let 
the Ship and Blacks go, *' not 
knowing," frankly confeffes De 
Laet, "how ufeful and profitable >f,/j^ ^^r- 

had, P. 17. 

they could be to them." Again, 
in 1627, the Dutch having over- 
come a Portuguefe Ship, coming 
from Angola to Pernambuco with 

600 Blacks on board, they derived 

Ibid., p. 120, 
no Advantage from the Capture, as 121. 

De Laet, Ibid. 
P. 2,30, 270. 

X IntroduSlion. 

thofe of Pernambuco refufed to 
ranfom the Negroes, fome of whom 
were landed afterwards, with the 
Portuguefe, at Fayal. And fo late 
as 1 63 1, two Ships from Angola 
with 850 Negroes, having been 
captured off Hifpaniola and St a. 
Martha, the Dutch Commanders 
not knowing what to do with 
the Blacks, let them and the Ships 

It will be feen by the above 

Refume, that the Weft India Com- 
pany having been abforbed in its 
Operations againft the Spaniards, 
did not, for fome Years after it 

hitroduSiion. xi 

firft came into Exiftence, place 
much Value on the Slave Trade ; 
and, as a Confequence, Slavery was 
not greatly foftered or encouraged 
in New Netherland. 

It was not until the Dutch had 
reduced Pemambuco and other Parts 
of Brazil, and taken Curasao, that 
they began to derive any Profit 
from the Capture of Slaves. In 
OBober, 1636, the Souther gh took DcLaet,\vxA., 
a Ship from Angola with 230 Ne- 
groes, which were fold (hortly 
afterwards at the Reciff for 30,000 
Guilders. A couple of Months 
later, another Lot of captured Afri- 

xii IntroduElion, 

cans, 340 in Number, was fold by 
public Audiion at the fame Place, 
and brought 67,000 Guilders. Be- 
tween the Years 1623 and 1636, the 
DdLa«, Ibid., Dutch captured from the Spaniards 

App. P. 21. 

'Two thoufandy three hundr ed and fifty - 
Jix Negroes, whofe eftimated Value 
was 589,000 Guilders. Finally, in 
1 64 1, they reduced Loando St. Paulo 
in Africa; and thus, with this Slave 
Hive on the one Side, and Brazil 
and Curasao for Slave Markets on 
the other, they obtained complete 
Control of the Slave Trade. The 
Southefs Bra- Shlps of thc Weft India Company 


now failed dired: from Holland to 

Introdu&ion. xiii 

Angola with Articles of Commerce ; 
got Slaves in Exchange, which they 
carried to Brazil, and returned to 
Holland with Sugar and other Pro- 
duce of that Country. 

We now propofe to trace the 
Introduction of Slavery into New 

In 1625 or 1626, fix or feven 
Years after the Dutch had difcharged 
the fmall Lot of Slaves in Virginia, 
the firft Negroes were brought to 
Manhattan. Among them were 
Paul d' Angola, Simon Congo, Anthony 
Portuguefe, John Francifco, and 
feven other Africans, who were 

xiv IntroduEiton, 

probably captured at Sea. Their 
Names denote the Country to 
which they originally belonged. 
Two Years afterwards three Negro 
Women arrived at New Ajnjlerdam; 
and thefe are the only Inftances 
on Record of the Introduction of 
Slaves in New Netherland prior to 
the Eredion of Patroonfhips and 
Colonies in 1629, when the Weft 
India Company publicly promifed 
Freedoms of to " ufc their Endeavors to fupply 

1629, Art. 30. 

the Colonifts with as many Blacks 
as they conveniently can." 

For Caufes, already noted, thefe 
"endeavors" were not followed, as 

IntroduSlion, xv 

far as we have been able to afcer- 
tain, by any immediate Increafe of 
Negroes here ; and it was not until 
after the Redudion of Loando that 
the Current of Slavery fet northward 
to any great Amount.* 

By an Edid: iflued in 1645, no N.r.cohmai 
private Dutch VeiTel was allowed 
to trade farther North than Cape 
Florida, nor on any Account to the 
Virginias, New Netherlands New 
France, the Coaft of Africa or 
Brazil. The Trade in thefe Coun- 

* Slavery exifted in the Limits of tlie prefent State 
o^lSlew Jerjcy as early as 1638.— A^ T. Col. MSS., 

xvi IntroduElion. 

tries was wholly monopolized by 
the Weft India Company. 

In the Summer of 1646, the firft 
Slave Ship, of whofe Name we have 
a Record, arrived in New Nether- 
land. She was called the A?nandare. 
This Veffel touched at Barbadoes, 
where "three Negro Wenches" 
were fpirited away. The Remain- 
der arrived at New Amjlerdam in 
vanderdomk yuue, where " the Negroes were 


fold for Pork and Peas. Something 
wonderful was to be performed 
with them, but they juft dropped 
through the Fingers." What Num- 
ber of Slaves were brought in 

IntroduElion. xvii 

this Veffel, or whether they were 
brought from Brazil or Guinea^ is 
not ftated.* 

In January^ 1648, a Committee 
of the States General made a lengthy 
Report on the Affairs of the Weft 
India Company, in the Courfe of 
which they refer to the Fad:, that 
in Confequence of the unfettled 
State of Brazil^ " the Slave Trade 
hath long lain dormant to the 
great Damage of the Company." 
In order to revive that Traffic, 

* Sugar and Oil were a Part of her Cargo; and 
thefe Articles may ferve as a Clue to determine her 
Port of Departure. She undoubtedly belonged to, 
or was chartered by, the Weil: India Company. 


xviii IntroduElion, 

Attention was turned to New 
N. r. Colonial " That Country," fays the Report, 

Doc, I, 246. 

" is confidered to be the mofh fruitful 
of all within your High Mighti- 
neifes' Jurifdidtion, and the befl: 
adapted to raife all Sorts of this 
Country Produce, fuch as Rye, 
Wheat, Barley, Peas, Beans, etc., 
and Cattle ; and that in more 
Abundance than can be done here, 
were it fuitably peopled and culti- 
vated. The granting of Freedoms 
and Privileges, hath indeed induced 
fome Patroons and Colonifts to 
undertake Agriculture there; but 

IntroduBion. xix 

as the Produce cannot be fold any 
where except in the adjacent Places 
belonging to the Englifh, who 
are themfelves fufficiently fupplied, 
thofe Planters have not received a 
Return for their Labor and Outlay. 
With a View, then, to give greater 
Encouragement to Agriculture, and 
confequently to Population, we 
fhould confider it highly advan- 
tageous that a way be opened to 
allow them to export their Produce 
even to Brazil, in their own Veifels, 
under certain Duties, and fubjed: to 
the Supervilion both of the Director 
in New Netherlands and the Supreme 

XX IntroduBion. 

Council in Brazil ; and to trade it 
off there, and to carry Slaves back 
in Return ; which Privilege of fail- 
ing with their own Ships from New 
Nether land to Brazil^ fliould be 
exclulively allowed to Patroons and 
Colonifts, who promote the Popu- 
lation in New Netherlands and not 
to the Interlopers, who only carry 
Goods to and fro, without attending 
to Agriculture. By this Means not 
only would Brazil be fupplied with 
Provifions at a cheaper Rate, but 
New Netherland would by Slave 
Labor, be more extenfively culti- 
vated than it has hitherto been. 

IntroduElion. xxi 

becaufe the agricultural Laborers, 
who are conveyed thither at great 
Expenfe to the Colonifts, fooner or 
later apply themfelves to Trade, 
and negled: Agriculture altogether. 
Slaves, on the other Hand, being 
brought and maintained there at a 
cheap Rate, various other Defcrip- 
tions of Produce would be raifed, 
and by their Abundance be reduced 
in Price, fo as to allow, when 
Occalion would offer, of their ad- 
vantageous Exportation hither and 
to other Parts of Europe." 

The Trade to Africa was opened, n. y. cohmai 

il/55., IX, 53. 

in 1652, to the Colonifts, who 

xxii IntroduElion, 

were permitted to import Slaves 
diredly from that Country, within 
certain prefcribed Limits. No im- 
mediate Ad:ion, however, followed 
this Permiffion ; and it was not 
until the Year 1655 that Slaves 
began to be regularly imported into 
New Netherland. 

It is to be borne in Mind, how- 
ever, that during the War with 
Spain, Privateers fwarmed among 
the Caribbean Ijlands and along the 
Spanifh Main. Thefe VelTels oc- 
cafionally brought Prizes to New 
Amjierdafu. After the Peace be- 
tween the United Netherlands and 

N. r. Colonial 
Doc. I, 1:77, 

IntroduBion. xxiii 

Spain, Hoflilities were carried on 
between the latter Power and 
France. To the Privateers under 
the French Flag New Amjierdain was 
a neutral Port, where fome of them 57 
occalionally came and dilpofed of 
their captured Negroes and other 
prize Goods.* 

It has been afTerted that Negroes Bancrofts 


were imported into New Net her land 11, 303. 
" often directly from Guinea^ This 
Allegation is bafed on the Defpatch 
of 7th April, 1648, and on the 

* In 1642, the Privateer La Garce brought in a 
few Negroes, and in 1652 a Lot o\' Forty-four Ne- 
groes were brought in by another Privateer who had 
captured them from a Spaniard. 

xxiv IntroduElion, 

mere Draft of a Contrad: in 1660 
[Infra, P. loi, 169). But there is 
no Evidence that any AcStion fol- 
lowed the Permiffion of 1648, and 
the Remonftrance [Infra, P. 171), 
proves that the Contract not only 
had never been executed, but that 
the Parties declined executing it. 
The Records contain Inftances of 
the Arrival of only two VelTels 
at New Amjierdam " directly from 
Guinea'' with Slaves. Thefe were 
the Wittepaert and Gideon. All 
other Importations of that Character 
were from Curasao, except perhaps 
thofe of the Amandare, which moft 

IntroduBion. xxv 

probably were brought from Bra- 

The Ventures and Veflels in 
this nefarious Commerce, belonged 
either to private Parties in Holland^ 
or to the Weft India Company. 
" We have refolved," write the Di- 
redtors 2X Amjierdam in 1661, "not 
only that Slaves fhall be kept in 
New Netherlands as we have here- 
tofore ordered, but that they fhall 
moreover be exported to the Englifh 
and other Neighbours." The Spirit 
of Avarice and Greed deadened 
Confcience and fmothered all Feel- 
ing of Humanity ; and " the Pro- 

XX vi hitroduEiion. 

motion of Agriculture, Trade, and 
Population" was the thin Covering 
which glolTed over the Infamy of 
the Trade. 

In November 1661, the City of 

New j^mjierdam became the Owner 

of three Negroes, which it obtained 

as a Prefent from the Diredor and 

Bancroft's u. Council. In 1664, "the City of 

S., ift Ed., II> o , 

303. Amjlerdam did not blum to own 

Shares in a Slave Ship, to advance 
Money for the Outfits, and to par- 
ticipate in the Returns." But to the 
Credit of New Netherland, it is to 
be recorded that no Ship nor Mer- 
chant belonging to that Colony, 

IntroduSlion, xxvii 

had ever been engaged in the Afri- 
can Slave Trade. An Effort had, 
it is true, been made in New Am- 
Jierdam to embark in it, but the 
Projed:, fortunately for the Honor 
of the Country, fell through. 

" Of a dired; Voyage from Guinea nijiory u. s., 

3d Edition, III, 

to the Coaft of the United States ^o^. 
no Journal," fays Mr. Bancroft , 
" is known to exift." The Papers 
now published will fupply this 
Defed; in fome Degree ; and the 
Journal of the Slaver St. John^ 
though that Veflel was not deftined 
for the Coaft of North America^ 
will give fome Inlight to the 

xxviii IntroduElion. 

Horrors of the Middle Paffage. 
One hundred and ninety -Jive human 
Beings were crammed into the 
Hold of that VelTel. Bad Food, 
fhort Allowance, Want of Water, 
foul Air, and Bloody Flux, were 
the Attendants on the PalTage ; and 
as a Confequence,7^jK-y?A; per cent 
of the wretched Beings perifhed 
on the Voyage. Of the Balance, 
only one Negro eventually accrued 
to the Benefit of the Dutch ; for, 
as a retributive Fate willed it, a Pri- 
vateer, or Pirate, fwooped down in 
the Vicinity of Curasao, plundered 
every thing, and carried off the 

IntroduElion. xxix 

furviving Negroes " towards the 

No better Fortune awaited the 
Slaver, T^he Arms of Amjierdam. 
This VeiTel brought One hundred 
and one Slaves from Angola^ but 
on her Voyage to Curasao, was 
overhauled by fome Englifh Pri- 
vateers among the Weft India 
Iflands, captured and carried into 

Curasao was, under the Dutch, 
what Barbadoes was fubfequently 
to the Englilli — the Slave Empo- 
rium to which Guineamen brought 
their Cargoes of human Flefh, to 

XXX IntroduEiion, 

be thence diftributed throughout 
this Continent. And in the fol- 
lowing Pages, the Reader will find 
ample Information regarding the 
active Trade in Slaves, which was 
carried on between that Ifland, 
New Netherlands and the Spanifh 
Pofieffions on the Main previous to 





E Weighed anchor, by 1659. 
order of the Hon^^^ w^ 
Diredior, yohan Valcken- 
horch^ and the Hon^'^ Di- 
re6lor Jc^fper van Heujfen^ to 
proceed on our Voyage from 
Elmina to Rio Reaei^ to trade 
for Slaves for the Hon^^^ Com- 


( 2 ) 

Saturday. Arrived with our 
fhip before Arda^ to take on 
board the Surgeon's mate and 
a Supply of Tamarinds for the 
Slaves ; failed again next day 
on our Voyage to Rio Reael. 

17. Arrived at Rio Reael in 
front of a village called Bany 
where we found the Compa- 
ny's Yacht, named the Peace^ 
which was fent out to affifl: us 
to trade for Slaves. 
April. Nothing was done except 

to trade for Slaves. 
May 6. One of our feamen died; 
his name was Claes van Die- 
7nen^ of Durgerdam. 

22. Again weighed Anchor and 

( 3 ) 

ran out of Rio Reael accom- 1659. 
panied by the Yacht Peace ;^ 
purchafed there two hundred 
and nineteen head of Slaves, 
men, women, boys and girls, 
and proceeded on our courfe 
for the High land of Amhojius^ 
for the purpofe of procuring 
food there for the Slaves, as 
nothing was to be had at Rio 

Monday. Arrived under the 26. 
High land of Ambojius to look 
there for Vidfuals for the Slaves, 
and fpent feven days there, 
but with difficulty obtained 
enough for the daily con- 
fumption of the Slaves, fo that 

( + ) 

1659. we refolved to run to Rio 
,^!!^ Cammerones to fee if any food 
could be had there for the 
June 5. Thurfday. Arrived at the 
Rio Commerones and the Yacht 
Peace went up to look for pro- 
vifions for the Slaves. This 
day died our cooper, named 
Peter Claejfen^ of Amjierdam. 
29. Sunday. Again refolved to 
proceed on our Voyage, as but 
little food was to be had for 
the Slaves in confequence of 
the great Rains which fell 
every day, and becaufe many 
of the Slaves were fuffering 
from the Bloody Flux in con- 

( 5 ). 

fequence of the bad pro- 
vifions we were fupplied with 
at El Mina^ amongft which 
were feveral barrels of Groats, 
wholly unfit for ufe. 

We then turned over to Adri- 
aen Blaes^ the Skipper, One 
hundred and ninety five Slaves, 
confifting of Eighty one Men, 
One hundred and jive Women, 
Jix boys and three girls for 
which Bills of lading were 
figned and fent, one by the 
Yacht Peace to El Mina with 
an account of, and receipts 
for, remaining Merchandize. 

Arrived at Cabo de Loop de]u\y2s. 
Confalvo for wood and water. 


i659- Our Surgeon, named Martin 
Zl^ de Lanoy^ died of the Bloody 

Aug. 10. Arrived the Company's Ship 
Raven from Cajlle St. George 
d'el Mina^ homeward bound. 
II. Again refolved to purfue 
our Voyage towards the Ifland 
of Annebo^ in order to pur- 
chafe there Supplies for the 
Slaves. We have lain Sixty 
days at Cabo de Loop hauling 
wood and water. Among the 
Water barrels, forty were taken 
to pieces to be refitted, as our 
Cooper died at Rio Camme- 
rones^ and we had no other per- 
fon capable of repairing them. 

( 7 J 

Arrived at the Ifland An- 1659. 
nebo where we purchafed One ^^L^ 
hundred half tierces of little 
Beans, twelve Hogs, five thou- 
fand Cocoa nuts, five thoufand 
Oranges, befides fome other 

Again hoifted Sail to profe- 17. 
cute our Voyage to the Ifland 
of Curacao, 

The Skipper called the Sept. 21. 
Ships officers aft, and refolved 
to run for the Ifland of Tobago 
and to procure Water there ; 
otherwife we fhould have per- 
ifhed for want of water, as 
many of our Water caiks had 
leaked dry. 

(8 ) 

1659. Friday. Arrived at the Ifland 
v!£^*of Tobago and fhipped Water 
there, alfc purchafed fome 
Bread, as our hands had had 
no ration for three weeks. 
27. Again fet fail on our Voyage 
to the Ifland of Curacao^ as 
Nov. 2. Loft our fhip on the Rifts 
of RocuSj and all hands im- 
mediately took to the Boat, as 
there was no profpedt of faving 
the Slaves, for we muft aban- 
don the Ship in confequence 
of the heavy Surf. 
4. Arrived with the Boat at the 
Ifland of Curacao ; the Hon^^^ 
Governor Beck ordered two 

(9 ) 

floops to take the Slaves off 1659. 

the wreck, one of which iloops ^ ^ 

with eighty four ilaves on 
board, was captured by a Pri- 


lO ) 


Who died on board the Ship 
St. ^chxifrom 30^^-' June to 
29^^ OEiober i?i the Year 





June 30 
July I 























( " ) 





July 16 






























Aug. 2 














I man leaped 









( 12 ) 





Aug. 24 





Sept. 3 






















oa. I 























( 13 ) 

On the jirjl of November, 1659- 
two hours before day, have we w-v— - 
loft the Ship St, yohn^ upon 
the Reef of Rocus and fled 
with the Boat to the Ifland of 
Curaqao^ and left in the Ship 
eighty five Slaves, including 
Men, Women, Boys and Girls, 
and arrived on the fourth of 
this inftant at Curaqao, 

( H ) 


Taken by Order of the Hon^^^ 
DireBor Matthias Beck re- 
fpeBing the Capture of the 
Company's Negroes aban- 
doned on board the Ship St. 
John on the Ijland g/'Rocus, 
and of the Company's Sloop 
which was fen t to fave them 
by the Hon^^^ Dire&or M. 
Beck aforefaid. 

Gaelen who was fent by 
the Hon. Director in the Com- 
pany's Sloop, with the Skipper 
Hans MarcuJJen Stuyve^ to aid 

( 15 ) 

in faving the aforementioned 
Slaves, and having failed with 
the Skipper of the lofl: Ship 
and fome of his Crew, from 
the Port here on the Seventh 
of November towards evening, 
came on the following Satur- 
day in fight oi Bonaire. When 
they were running towards the 
fhore, they met an Englifh 
Privateer or Rover whereof 
yan Pieterfen^ a native of 
Denmark, was Captain, who 
came off the land and had the 
weather-gage of them, and 
commanded them to ftrike, 
threatening to fire if they did 
not obey. And this Deponent 

( x6 ) 

coming on board the aforefaid 
Privateer, was afked. Whence 
came he and Whither was he 
bound? He anfwered, from 
Curaqao and was bound for 
Bonaire. Whereupon, the 
Captain of the Privateer afked. 
What bulinefs had he there? 
Thereupon, Deponent an- 
fwered, To look up the 
Company's People. He, then, 
faid, I am going with my 
Ship and remain you here on 
board and let the Veffel go on. 
Which they did and came to 
Bonaire, Being in the Road- 
ftead with the aforefaid Veffel, 
on board of which were 5 or 6 


( '7 ) 

of the Privateer's crew, one 
of the men of the wrecked 
Ship called out from the fhore 
to thofe of the Veffel, as the 
Deponent hath afterwards un- 
derftood. Did you bring along 
Skipper Blaes — to wit, the 
Skipper of the wrecked Ship — 
and have you been to Rocus 
to fave the Negroes, who 
remained on board the Ship 
that lay ftranded there? or. 
They ought iirft to go thither 
to fave them. Whereupon 
the Privateers, who were in 
the bark, faid, addreffing the 
Skipper of the wrecked Ship, 
Now, it is enough that we 

( ^8 ) 

know that you are the Skipper 
of the wrecked Ship ; and 
about two hours afterwards, 
the Privateer came with his 
Ship, named the Cajlle frigate^ 
QdiVrying four guns and about 
thirty men, into the Roadftead 
where the Veffel lay at anchor. 
Then his Fellows who were 
on board the Company's bark 
or Veffel, called out ; Captain, 
We have a good Prize — men- 
tioning the Ship wrecked at 
Rocus — and having berated 
the Deponent for not having 
told him of what had occurred, 
was anfwered. He was not 
bound to do fo; and at the 

( 19 ) 

fame time requejfted and pro- 
tefted that he fhould let him 
go in order that he may 
profecute the Voyage he had 
been fent on. Whereunto 
they were unwilling, but on 
the contrary, him detained by 
force, and on the following 
Sunday, difpatched the Veffel 
to Little Curaqao againfl: his 
will where the aforefaid Pri- 
vateer had his Lieutenant with 
a party of his men and a 
Pirogue to watch, as they faid, 
the Company's veffels. 

On the morning of the 
following Monday, the afore- 
faid Veflel returned with the 

( 20 ) 

Lieutenant and Crew, leaving 
their Pirogue, which they had 
taken from the Spaniards, on 
the coaft of Curaqao^ ftill at 
Anchor at Little Curaqao^ and 
towards evening fet fail, taking 
with them by force the Com- 
pany's VelTel on board of 
which he put his crew, leaving 
in it only Skipper Hans afore- 
faid with two men • and then 
took along by force on board 
his Ship the Deponent with 
the reft of the Crew of the 
Veffel and fome belonging to 
the ftranded Ship and pro- 
ceeded on their Voyage to 
the Coaft of Caraccas where 

( 21 ) 

coming, the Rover drove a 
Frigate afhore which was un- 
derftood to mount fix guns, 
and with the Company's veffel 
ftranded a Spanifh Pirogue, and 
afterwards proceeded to the 
little Ifland of David^ where 
they came to an Anchor. 
Deponent having requefted 
with the other men to be fet 
on board their own Bark, they 
would confent that the De- 
ponent only fhould go on 
board the bark or Veflel. 
The Rover remained there at 
Anchor and difpatched the 
Deponent with fourteen of 
faid Rover's crew in the Com- 

( 22 ) 

pany's veffel to Rocus^ with 
orders to feize the Slaves as 
a good Prize, even though the 
Bark named the Young Brindle 
Cow^ whereof Jan Ryckartfen 
was Skipper, which had been 
fent thither by the Diredlor to 
fave the aforefaid Slaves, might 
have them on board. 

The abovementioned Bark 
had lain four days by the 
Wreck, and had made fafl: a 
line to it in order to get the 
Negroes on board by that means 
and fave them ; but they could 
efFed: nothing through dread 
of the Negroes, and becaufe 
the hands on board the Bark 

( 23 ) 

were too few. They, there- 
fore, refolved to await the 
arrival of the Veffel whereof 
the aforefaid Hans Stuyve was 
Skipper, in order thus to be 
ftronger in hands, and by that 
means better able to bring the 
Negroes on board. Then, on 
arriving there, the Rover's 
fourteen men did, in the 
prefence of this Deponent, run 
aboard them with the veffel, 
and attack and overpower 
them in a hoftile manner, and 
took the boats of the Bark and 
the Sloop, all the Property of 
the Company, and with them 
hauled the Negroes off the 

( H ) 

Wreck to the number of eighty 
four and having loaded the 
Bark the Brindled Cow with 
them, proceeded to David's 
ijland where lay the Rover, 
who took all the Negroes on 

Meanwhile, remained the 
Sloop or Veflel with the De- 
ponent at Rocus^ pretendmg 
ftill an inclination to fave 
fomething, and came the day 
following, to David's ijland 
having faved fome cooking 
Kettles and Cordage which alfo 
they took away to the Rover. 
When this was accomplifhed, 
the Deponent enquired if they 

( 25 ) 

were fatisfied and would per- 
mit him to depart with the 
aforefaid Veffel, or Company's 
Sloop. They anfwered, When 
they had hauled wood and 
water. Perfifting in his re- 
queftj he at lafl: obtained for 
anfwer. That the Sloop was 
of ufe to them and they would 
not reftore it, and in cafe the 
Bark could be of fervice to 
them, they would retain her 
likewife, and further, every 
thing belonging to the Com- 
pany on the way to or from 
Curaqao. However, iince fhe 
is of no ufe, you can go in 


( 26 ) 

her with all your folks and 
do'nt give much jaw, or you 
fhall all march out naked, and 
do you go quietly on board 
and do not hoifl: a fingle fail 
until we are gone. 

On the evening of the 23d. 
when he had failed, fteering 
his courfe towards the Main- 
land, we took our departure 
and this day arrived here. 
And this he declares to have 
thus truly occurred, which if 
neceffary he will confirm by 
oath; in prefence of Theunis 
Lucajfen and Peter de Leeuw^ 
as Witneffes hereunto invited, 

( 27 ) 

in Fort Ajitjlerdani at Cura- 
qao, the 25''' November A° 


Jan van Gaelen. 
Theunis Lucaffen, 
Peter de Leeuw. 
In my prefence, 
Nicolas Hack, 


Appeared . Jan Rykartfen^ 
Skipper of the Company's 
Sloop, The Young Brindled 
Cowy and fays, that he by 
order of the Hon^'^ Director, 
had gone to Ariiba, When 

( 28 ) 

there, received Inftrudlions to 
proceed to Rocus^ to fave the 
Company's Slaves who were 
driven on Ihore there in the 
Ship St, John^ coming from 
the Coaft of Guinea. Thefe 
orders I immediately executed. 
On arriving there, I ufed every 
diligence to reach the Wreck 
and fo far fucceeded as to get 
a line on board, and then two 
Negroes came fwimming to 
the Boat by whom the line 
had been paffed on board. It 
afterwards broke loofe and in 
confequence of bad weather, 
I could not go on board. I, 
therefore, refolved to wait for 

( 29 ) 

the Company's veffel whereof 
Hans Marcujfen Stuyve was 
Skipper, who, I had been 
notified, would come to help 
to fave the Slaves ; the rather, 
becaufe my Crew being few in 
number ftood, therefore, in 
fear of the Negroes. 

On the 1 6^^ inftant, arrived 
the Veffel which attacked me 
in a hoftile manner. Where- 
upon the Deponent demanded. 
What are you about ? He faid. 
Shew your Sea brief which 
Deponent did. That, they 
faid, was well, and added, he 
might remain in their fervice 

{ 30 ) 

as long as he pleafcd, which 
he refufed, being bound to 
ferve not them, but the Hon*^^^ 
Director in the Company's 
fervice upon which he was 
difpatched. Neverthelefs, he 
and his Crew were compelled 
to lubmit, and they forcibly 
took away his Boat, and with it 
the Company's Slaves and the 
Boat of the aforeiaid Veffel, 
on board his own Ship, and 
commanded him to accom- 
pany them to David's ijland^ 
where lay the Rover, called 
the Cajile frigate y the Captain 
whereof was yan Pieterfen 

( 31 ) 

of Colding^ in Denmark^ to 
whom the men belonged who 
maftered and captured the 
Company's Veffel aforefaid, 
and transferred the Slaves to 
the Ship. In the meanwhile, 
the aforefaid Veffel remained 
at Rocus with the Deponent's 
boat, in order, as they gave 
out, to fave by their means, 
more Property, and they, in- 
deed, brought off two more 
Slaves, fome Elephants' teeth 
and other trifles, fo that alto- 
gether they took 84. Slaves and 

* A City in the S. E. Corner of the 
Province of North Jutland, near the 
Little Belt. 

( 32 ) 

2 fucking Children. They alfo 
took and carried off the afore- 
faid Company's Veffel whereof 
Hans Marcujfen Stuyve was 
Skipper, and told me, the 
Deponent, that even had I had 
faid Slaves on board the Bark 
on their arrival at Rocus^ they 
fhould have taken them away 
by force, and declared them 
good prize, becaufe I had 
no Commiffion, but only a 
Sea brief. And the Deponent 
fays, that they offered him 
money for the fervice they had 
received from his Bark and 
Crew ; this he refufed to take, 
as fuch fervice was rendered 

( 33 ) ■ 

under compulfion, for he owed 
them no obedience and could 
not receive any thing for com- 
pulfory fervice. The Deponent 
alfo fays, that he hath given 
the Captain a note that he 
had received nothing from 
them, and likewife that the 
Captain of the aforefaid Rover 
had fent the Deponent on 
board, though the Crew of 
the aforefaid Hans Marcujfe?i 
Stuyves Bark, belonging to 
the Company, had remained 
with him, and ordered me 
not to fail before he had 
departed, which was on the 
evening of the 23d of No- 

(3+ ) 

vember, he fleering towards 
the Coaft, and we to this place 
where we arrived this date. 
And this he declares to be 
true and, if needs be, will 
confirm the fame by oath. 
Curaqao in Fort A7njierda7n 
the 25th November A"" 1659. 

Jan Rickertsen. 
Ghyfbert de Rofa 
Peter de Leeuw 

In prefence of me 
Nicolas Hack, 



Appeared Hans Marcujfen 
Stuyve^ Skipper of the Com- 
pany's Veffel, and declared: 
On the yth of November 
I failed hence by order of 
the Hon^^^ Diredor for Rocus^ 
there to fave the Company's 
Slaves and other property from 
the Ship St. yohn coming 
there from Guinea. On the 
following day, arrived off Bo- 
naire with the aforefaid Bark, 
and met an Englifh Privateer, 
or Rover, who having the 
wind of us obliged us to 
ftrike. We then launched our 
Boat in which Jan van Gaelen 

( 36 ) 

went on board of him with 
two other hands, whom they 
detained, and fent my Boat 
back with men to take pof- 
feffion of my Bark which they 
did and carried us againft our 
will to Bonaire^ where being 
come, they put more hands 
on board and fent this Depo- 
nent from there to Little 
Curaqao to fetch the Priva- 
teer's Lieutenant and fome 
men thence, out of a Pirogue 
which they had taken from 
the Spaniards on the CoafI: of 
Caraccas and was ftationed 
there to watch the Company's 
Veffels going in and out. 

( 37 ) 

Being come there, they came 
over in our Veffel and aban- 
doned the Pirogue leaving her 
riding at anchor. Thus they 
returned to Bofjaire^ where 
the Rover rode at anchor, 
and being come there, they 
fet fail altogether, notwith- 
ftanding every Proteft againft 
the injuftice they did us, to- 
wards the Coaft of Caraccas 
where they drove a Spanifh 
Ship afhore, whilfl: we with 
our Sloop chafed a Pirogue 
afhore. Steering thence back 
we came to Little David^s 
ijland where the Rover cafi: 
anchor, and having put more 

( 38 ) 

men on board of us, compelled 
us to go to Rocus to fave 
the Slaves from the wrecked 
Ship, and if they were already 
faved by the Company's Bark, 
whereof Jan Ryckartfen was 
Skipper, to capture and remove 
them by force. On arriving 
there, we found the Bark, 
which we immediately boarded 
and took by force, removing 
all the Slaves which had al- 
ready been faved. But al- 
though they had been there 
four days before us, they were 
unable to eiFed: any thing as 
the line they had fent on 
board the Wreck, had again 

( 39 j 

broke loofe and they could 
not afterwards approach the 
Wreck in confequence of the 
violent wind. Only two Ne- 
gro men came by fwimming 
on board of him ; furthermore, 
finding themfelves too weak, 
they waited for our coming in 
order, being thus ftronger, to 
return and fave the Slaves &c, 
weather permitting. Boarding 
then the Bark, fhe was over- 
powered, as ftated, by force. 
Then taking their Shallop 
with ours, the Rover's crew, 
defpite our Protefts that we 
could not affifl: them, much 
lefs allow them to ufe our Vef- 

( +0 j 

fel, faved and brought on board 
the aforefaid Bark of Skipper 
Jan Ryckertfen^ Eighty two 
Slaves and two Sucklings and 
fteered away with them to 
David's ijlandj where faid 
Rover lay at anchor with his 
Veffel named the Cajlle frigate^ 
the Captain whereof was Ja^t 
Pieterfen of Denmark^ and 
compelled us to remain with 
our Bark at Rocus^ with the 
little Sloop of Jan Ryckertfen 
aforefaid, to fave, as they faid, 
fome other Articles, which they 
did, namely, eight or nine little 
elephants' Teeth, two cooking 
Kettles, fome tin Ware and 

(+1 ) 

Cordage, and proceeded there- 
with to David's ijla7td^ where 
the aforefaid Rover removed 
every thing from the faid 
Company's Veffels, and com- 
pelled us to remain until he 
had hauled Wood and Water. 
Nay, he would pay the Depo- 
nent for his trouble and the 
ufe of the Veffels and Sloop, 
which he would not accept, 
giving for anfwer, That they 
were fent out not on this, 
but the Company's fervice 
by the Hon^^^ Director Mat- 
thias Beck^ and that force and 
violence had been employed 
againft them. Whereupon the 

(+2 ) 

Captain of the Rover was 
greatly irritated, and carried 
off the Deponent's Veffel, not- 
withftanding he had more 
than three times exhibited to 
him his Commiffion which 
the Hon^^^ Diredior had given 
him, acknowledging even that 
the Commiffion was valid and 
that he was a Free man, and 
had nothing to fay againfl: 
him. All which notwithftand- 
ing, he afterwards carried off 
my Veffel with him, faying. 
He had need of it, and made 
me vacate it with my Men, 
permitting us only to take our 
Clothing, and then put us on 

( 43 ) 

board yan RyckertferC s Bark. 
The Deponent further faith, 
that he was compelled per 
force to lign a Note, not 
knowing its contents, for it 
was written in Englifh, and 
this Deponent does not un- 
derftand the Englifh language. 
And having been ordered not 
to fail before the Rover left, 
which was on the evening of 
the 23d November inftant, 
fleering his courfe towards the 
Main, we, with the afore- 
faid Bark of Jan Ryckertfen 
leaving behind one of our 
Sailors named Jacob Pieterfen 
of Belcom^ who voluntarily re- 
mained with them, fteered to- 

(++ ) 

wards this Harbor, where we 
arrived in fafety this day. And 
this he declares to be true and 
will confirm the fame if needs 
be, by oath; in prefence of 
Ghyjhert de Rofa and Peter de 
Leeuw as witneffes hereunto 
invited. Curaqao in Fort Am- 
Jlerdam the 25 th November 
A° 1659. 


This is the mark | ^ of Skipper 

Hans Marcussen Stuyve 
Witnefs Ghylbert de Rofa 

Peter de Leeuw 
In prefence of me 

NicoLAEs Haek, Secretary. 

( +5 ) 

Appeared Adriaen Blaes 
van der Veer^ and faith, that 
he was commanded by Johan 
Valckenburch General of El 
Mina and the Gold Coajl^ on 
the 4th of March laft to fail 
as Skipper of the Ship St. 
John^ from the Roadftead of 
the Cajlle del Mina aforefaid, 
with Commiffary Johan Froon 
and the accompanying Sailors, 
in the Company's fervice, to 
the Calabari or Rio Realy there 
to trade for Slaves and to pro- 
ceed with them, by order of 
the aforefaid General, to this 
place. In obedience to thefe 

(46 ) 

orders. Two hundred and nine- 
teen Slaves big and little, were 
actually traded and purchafed, 
wherewith we failed in order 
to proiecute our Voyage and 
carry out our Inftrudtions. 
Not obtaining at the Calabari 
fuch fufficiency of proviiions 
as this Voyage demanded, for 
the fuftenance of the aforefaid 
Slaves, we refolved to go to the 
Highland of Ambojius where 
we were unable to procure 
any Provifions, as was our 
defire. We, therefore went 
to the River Camerones^ where 
we obtained a few Articles, 
but not as much as we wanted. 

( 4-7 ) 


Neverthelefs, we purfued our 
Voyage towards Capo de Lopo 
GonfalveSy at which place we 
took in Wood and Water, and 
thence ftood acrofs although 
experiencing great mifery and 
want of food, to Anaho^ where 
we got fome Proviiions and 
went on our Voyage and made 
land in the month of OElober 
laft at the Ifland of Tobago^ the 
greater portion of the Slaves 
having died from Want and 
Sicknefs, in confequence of 
fuch a very long Voyage, fo 
that we faved only Ninety 
Slaves, out of the whole Cargo. 
Having taken in wood and 

(+8 ) 

water and a few Refrefhments 
from the furrounding Iflands, 
we fet fail and after we fixed 
our courfe on the jirjl inftant, 
weft by fouth, we ran afhore, 
two hours before day, on one 
of the Rifts of Rocus^ on the 
North Eaft fide of the Ifland. 
Perceiving our danger, we 
faved ourfelves with all the 
Crew in the Boat, leaving the 
Negroes in the Ship, taking 
our courfe to this place, in 
order to inform the Hon^^^ 
Director M. Beck of our Mif- 
fortune. After we had left 
fome of the men at Bonayre^ 
becaufe the Boat was too 

(+9 ) 

heavily laden with the Crew, 
we arrived here on tli^Jourth 
inftant. Having reported our- 
felves to the aforefaid Hon^^^ 
Director, he difpatched me 
with the above Boat to Aruba^ 
whither the Company's Veffels 
had failed, the day before, on 
the Company's buHnefs, with 
orders to proceed in faid Vef- 
fels with five of my men, and 
Jan van Gaelen^ the Com- 
pany's fervant. Arriving there 
on the following day, we went 
over in the Company's Vef- 
fel, whereof Ha7ts MarciiJJen 
Stuyve was Skipper, with Jan 
van Gaelen^ and two of my 

( 50 ) 

Crew, and the other three of 
my men in the Bark, called 
The Young Brindled Cow^ of 
which Jan Ryckertfen was 
Skipper, all in the fervice of 
the Company. 

We purfued our Voyage 
without any mifhap, purfuant 
to the orders we had received 
from the aforefaid Hon^^^ Di- 
rector here, and fo on to Rocus^ 
to fave the Slaves and Ship's 
property, and having failed 
on the evening of t]\Q /event h 
after remaining half an hour 
here, we arrived in the after- 
noon of the following day off 
Bonayre where we met an 

( 51 ) 

Englifh Privateer, who having 
the wind of us, overtook us 
and compelling us to ftrike 
and to fend off* a Boat, the 
aforefaid Jan van Gaelen 
went on board him, who told 
him, we came from Curaqao 
and were going to Bonayre. 
Thereupon, the faid Privateer 
difpatched in our Boat, in 
which yan van GaeleJt whom 
he detained, had gone to his 
Ship, on board our Veffel a 
party of his men to fearch for 
Pieces of Eight which, they 
faid, we had. Then not find- 
ing any, as we had none, they 
forced us to run with them 

( 52 ) 

up the Roadftead of Bonayre^ 
where we arrived about two 
hours before the Privateer. 
Some of my Men who were 
on fhore, not knowing any 
thing of thefe proceedings, 
called out. If I were on board ? 
The Privateer's men taking 
up the word before me, afked. 
Who? Thereupon they an- 
fwered, The Skipper of the 
Ship wrecked at Rocus^ adding. 
Had we been to the Slaves, or 
were we going to fave them ? 
The Privateers anfwered. That 
they were going to fave them ; 
manifefting great joy thereat, 
faying, when the Privateer 

( 53 ) 

caft anchor. Captain, we have 
a good Prize. Thereupon they 
forced the Deponent to go on 
board the Rover which was a 
fmall Frigate, carrying four 
guns, and about thirty men, 
whereof Jan Pieterfen^ a na- 
tive oi Denmark^ was Captain. 
This Veffel was called The 
Caftle frigate. Coming on 
board, the Captain enquired. 
How many Negroes he had left 
on his Ship? Deponent an- 
fwered. Eighty, When he 
heard that, he fent the Veffel 
in which the Deponent came, 
to Little Curaqao^ to bring his 
Lieutenant and fome of his 

( 5+ ) 

men, who were lying there in 
a Periauger, which they had 
taken from the Spaniards, to 
watch the Company's Veffels. 
Meanwhile this Deponent re- 
mained on board the Rover, 
and they returning to us in the 
Roadftead oi Bonayre^ the Ro- 
ver permitted this Deponent 
to go back to the Bark, on 
board of which ftill were. Skip- 
per Hans Marcujfen aforefaid, 
with one of his hands, who had 
been compelled to go to Little 
Curaqao to fetch his Lieuten- 
ant and men. To this Veffel I 
came, as ftated, from the 
aforefaid Rover with two of 

( 55 ) 

my Crew, being then in all 
jive fervants of the Company 
on faid Company's Veffel. 
The Captain of the Rover 
having then placed his Lieu- 
tenant and Pilot, with fome of 
his hands, on board the Bark, 
we fet fail under compullion, 
leaving yan van Gaelen and 
fome of our men behind, 
whom the Rover retained by 
force on board his Ship, not 
heeding any protefts or re- 
quefts as free men, which 
they themfelves admitted us to 
be, having cognizance of the 
Commiffion granted by the 
Hon^^^ Diredor to the afore- 

( 56 ) 

faid Hans Marcujfen Stuyve^ 
as Skipper of the aforefaid 
Veffel, and that therefore, they 
ufed force and violence to- 
wards us who were not in any 
manner in their fervice, but 
indeed in that of the Com- 
pany, to whom alone we owed 
Obedience, and that for the 
purpofe of executing the or- 
ders of the Hon^^^ Diredior, to 
which end and to no other, 
were we fent out. All this 
notwithftanding, were we com- 
pelled to accompany the afore- 
faid Rover who fet fail at the 
fame time, taking his courfe 
towards the Main land of Ca- 

( 57 ) 

raccas where he drove on Ihore 
a Spanifh Ship mounting y£r 
guns, and with our Bark, in 
our prefence and before De- 
ponent's face, drove a Spanifh 
Periauger afhore. Thence 
they and the Rover forced us 
to crofs over and cafi: anchor 
under Little David's ijland^ 
and having put more people 
in our Bark, until fhe num- 
bered in all fourteen men, 
whilft he remained there at 
Anchor, we fet fail for Rocus. 
On arriving at that place, 
we found the other of the 
Company's Veffels, named The 
Young Brindled Cow^ whereof 

( 58 ) 

Jan Ryckertfen aforefaid was 
Skipper, with three of my men 
on board, who accompanied 
him to Aruba^ out of my 
Boat. They went thither, as 
already ftated, by command 
of the aforefaid Hon^^^ Di- 
rector, alfo with orders to no 
other intent than to fave the 
aforefaid Slaves &c, and had 
lain there four Days and had 
fo far fucceeded as to pafs a 
line on board my Ship, two 
of the Negroes coming on 
board fwimming. The afore- 
faid line breaking loofe, and 
finding themfelves too weak 
in confequence of the ftrong 

( 59 ) 

wind, the Men refolved to 
wait our arrival, having been 
informed of our approach, fo 
as, when thus reinforced and 
the Weather would moderate, 
to fave with our Sloop and 
Boat the aforefaid furviving 
Slaves &c. from my Ship which 
alfo belonged to the Company. 
Then they, the Rover's men, 
who were on board our Bark, 
fuppofing that the aforefaid 
Skipper Jan Ryckertfen with 
his Crew and my three men 
had faved all, coming to them 
went on board with our Bark, 
according to the orders they 
had to that effed:, from their 

(6o ) 

Captain, who had been in- 
formed of the departure of 
the aforefaid Company's Bark 
and the purport for which we 
were fent out, by a Frieflander 
named Jacob Peterfen from 
Belconij a Sailor in the Com- 
pany's fervice, under Skipper 
Hans Marcujfen Stuyve^ who 
had voluntarily deferted to 
them on the fame day that 
we came on board the Rover. 
Which orders were to board 
them, to fee if they had laved 
the Slaves &c. and to feize 
and remove them. They ac- 
cordingly did attack them in 
a hoftile manner in the pre- 

( 6i ) 

fence of the Deponent and 
four other of the Company's 
Servants who could not refrain 
from remonftrating againft the 
injuftice which they demon- 
ftrated they were doing. Find- 
ing that no more than the two 
aforefaid Slaves had been faved, 
they took away, per force our 
Boat together with Jan Ryck- 
ertfens Boat, all the property 
of the Company appertaining 
to the aforefaid Veffels, and 
with them, the weather mod- 
erating fomewhat, removed 
the Slaves from my Ship, 
making ufe for that purpofe 
of one of my Matroffes named 

( 62 ) 

Martin Michielfen van Hulji^ 
who was on board Jan Ryck- 
ertfens Bark aforefaid. By 
his aflifiance, for the Ne- 
groes knew him and called 
him by name, the aforefaid 
Jan Ryckertfen got the line 
on board, and in like manner 
accompanied one of the Ro- 
vers at the time all the Slaves 
&c. were on board, and then 
came again iwimming on 
board the Lieutenant of the 
Rover with two of his men, 
who then numbered four^ 
having again brought a rope 
on board from the Company's 
Veffel by which they let all 

( 63 ) 

the Negroes who were capa- 
ble of fwimming, fwim off to 
the Rift, whilfl: they brought 
thofe who could not fwim in 
a Boat belonging to the afore- 
faid Veffels, to the fame Rift, 
and having meanwhile made 
the other Boat dry inlide the 
Rift, they brought in her on 
board the aforefaid yan Ryck- 
ertferfs Bark, eighty two Slaves 
and two Sucklings. And this 
Deponent having, before they 
removed any of the Slaves, 
requefted of the Lieutenant 
and his men belonging to the 
Rover, permiffion to go with 
his aforefaid Matrofs, he was 

( 6+ ) 

unwilling to grant it until 
fome of the Slaves had been 
removed out of the Ship, fo 
that when this Deponent went 
on board his Ship there re- 
mained on board no more than 
about thirty Slaves. After all 
the Neo;roes had been removed 
from his Ship, this Deponent 
was conveyed to Jan Ryckert- 
fens Bark, with the Inftruc- 
tions which General Johan 
Valckenhurgh had given him, 
together with all the Papers 
and Accounts of the faid Com- 
miffary, relating to his freight 
and other bulinefs matters, 
done purfuant to the Compa- 

( 65 ) 

ny's orders. Then the Depo- 
pent was conveyed by them 
with the aforefaid Bark and 
Negroes, to David's ijland^ 
where the Rover lay at anchor 
waiting for us, leaving behind 
them the Veffel whereof Jan 
Marcujfen Stuyve is Skipper, 
to fave two Negroes whom the 
Deponent had left on board 
when he quit the Ship. That 
Veffel joined them the next 
day at David's iJJandj bringing 
along the two aforefaid Slaves, 
fome Kettles, Rope and about 
70 pounds of Elephants' teeth, 
alfo fome Flags, Compaffes 
and other articles. The Rover 

( 66 ) 

having removed the Slaves and 
every thing elfe out of the 
Company's Veflels, took from 
the Deponent the Inftrudlions 
given him by the General, with 
all the Commiffary's Papers, 
notv^ithftanding the protefts 
and requefts to the contrary, 
giving the Deponent for an- 
fwer, that all belonged to him. 
He, moreover, commanded 
them to remain by him until 
he had hauled Wood and 
Water, and afterwards took 
Hans MarcuJJen Sttiyves Vef- 
fel, faying he required her. 
He then made the Deponent 
remain on board Jan Ryckert- 

( 67 ) 

fens Bark, compelling him 
to make room for faid Hans 
Marcujfen Stuyve with all his 
Crew and fome of the Depo- 
nent's men. Then he ordered 
them not to fail for this Place 
until he had taken his depart- 
ure, which was on the 23d 
inftant, fleering his courfe to- 
wards the Main. And this 
Deponent with his Crew and 
that of the Company's Bark, 
took their courfe with the afore- 
faid Jan Ryckertfen s Bark, to 
this Place where they arrived 
in fafety on the 25^^ inftant. 
This he declares to be the 
truth, and to have thus oc- 

( 68 ) 

curred, and will if needs be, 
confirm the fame on oath, in 
prefence of Mr Gyjhert de 
Rofa and Peter de Leeuw^ 
witneffes hereunto invited. 
Curaqao in Fort A^njlerdam 
the 27th Nove^nber A° 1659. 

Adriaen Blaes. 
Ghyfbert de Rofa 
Peter de Leeuw 
In my prefence 



( 69 ) 


Matthias Beck, in the fervice 
of their High Mightinejfes 
the Lords States General of 
the free United Netherlands 
and of the Hon^^' General 
Incorporated Wefl India 
Company J Governor over the 
Cura9ao IJlands^ Greeting: 

BE it known^ that one Jan 
Pieterfen of Coling in 
Denmark^ ftyling himfelf Com- 
mander of a Ship called I'he 
Cajlle Frigate^ having with 
him fome Englifhmen, French- 

( 70 ) 

men and Dutchmen, who are 
cruifing with him on this 
Coaft in the Ship aforefaid, 
hath dared to attack the Com- 
pany's Veffels near Bonayre 
and Rocus^ and forcibly to take 
poffeffion thereof, and with 
them and the Company's Men 
to take by force, among others, 
eighty four healthy Negroes 
out of the Company's Ship, 
called The St. John^ comi-ng 
from the Coaft of Guinea^ 
which was wrecked on the 
Rifts of Rocus^ where one of 
the aforefaid Company's Ships 
was already engaged in faving 
faid Negroes for the Company, 

( 71 ) 

whofe Property they were, 
with all that was in the Ship, 
to bring them here to Curaqao^ 
for which purpofe they were 
expreffly fent hence thither; 
Regardlefs whereof, the afore- 
faid ya7t Pieterfen hath not 
only prevented the Company's 
Veffels executing their In- 
ftrudiions and Orders, but hath 
made himfelf Mafier of faid 
Veffels, and with them and 
Boats, ftole not only the faid 
Negroes and every thing elfe, 
but in addition thereto carried 
off one of the Company's beft 
failing Veffels called The Young 
Ofirich^ to the great damage 

( 72 ) 

of the Hon^^^ Company, and 
appropriated the fame to him- 
felf as good booty, fo as all is 
to be feen by the Informations, 
Relations, Reports and Dela- 
rations of the Skipper and 
Crews of the Veffels aforefaid. 
And Whereas the aforefaid 
yan P let erf en and his Men 
have heretofore committed 
iimilar ad:s under irregular 
Commiffion and perfift in the 
fame courfe, efpecially as pub- 
lic Pirates, by the feizure of 
the Company's Veffel and 
Negroes, and have threatened 
to continue fo to do; And 
Whereas among others, one of 

( 73 ) 

the Company's Matroffes 
named Jan Pieterfen of Bel- 
corn^ a Frieilander, being in 
our actual fervice, having 
failed as Matrofs on board the 
Company's ftyger fchuit, The 
Young Bri72dled Cow^ hath 
voluntarily gone over to this 
Pirate, difregarding the Alle- 
giance, Plight and Oath, 
whereby he was bound to the 
Company, but on the con- 
trary, as appears by Informa- 
tion, hath adled and is ftill 
acting, as a Spy for thefe 
Pirates; All which and what 
precedes are matters of very 
ill confequence, of ferious 

( 7+ ) 

damage and moment to the 
Hon^^^ General Incorporated 
Weft India Company, who 
will not fail to exprefs their 
higheft Indignation on this 
fubje6tj and endeavor by all 
ways and means, not only 
to make good and to pro- 
cure an indemnity for their 
damages and lofles already 
fuffered by the ftealing of 
their Veflel and Negroes, fo 
illegally purloined from them, 
but above all, to procure that 
fuch Rovers fhall be punifhed 
as Pirates and Robbers, ac- 
cording to their deferts, as an 
Example to others. 

( 75 ) 

To this end, therefore, with 
the advice of Our Council, 
upon the certain Proofs and 
Reports to Us rendered. We, 
being unwilling to lofe any 
time in overhauling the faid 
Sea Robbers, have Refolved 
and concluded, in the Name 
and on the Behalf of the 
Lords Principals, their High 
Mightineffes the Lords States 
General, and the Hon^^^ Ge- 
neral Incorporated Weft India 
Company, for their protection 
and the Public Good, hereby 
to warn all the Company's 
Captains, and Ships as well 
as Private Skippers and Ships 

( 76 ) 

and Veffels at prefent lying 
or about to come, within this 
Harbor, who owe allegiance 
to their High Mightineffes the 
Lords States General and are 
in the fervice of the Hon^^^ 
General Incorporated Weft 
India Company not only to 
be on their guard againft the 
aforefaid Pirates and Sea Rob- 
bers, but fhould they meet 
them at Sea, them to attack, 
openly and with force and 
arms, and bring them in here 
to Curaqao^ or if they fall in 
with them at any of the Lee- 
ward IJJands^ to complain of 
them to the Governors and 

( 77 ) 

Magiftrates at fuch place where 
they happen to find them, ac- 
cording to the Proofs thereof 
in exiftence, and to procure that 
fuch Juftice may be inflicted 
upon them as the Informations 
fhall juftify. Requefting all 
Generals, Governors and Com- 
manders both on Sea and on 
Land, to whom thefe Our 
Letters for the execution of 
the premifes fhall be fhown, 
to adminifter good Law and 
Juftice to them. Such will 
We reciprocate on like Occa- 
fion. Thus done and enadied 
on the Ifland Curaqao in Fort 
Amjlerdam the 5 th December^ 
A° 1659. 

( 78 ) 

Vice DireElor Beck to the West 
India Company, Chamber at 

Curasao, 5 'January, 1660. 

Honorable, Refpedled, Wife, 
Prudent and moft Difcreet 

BY the Ships King Solomon 
and St, John 3d Sep- 
tember, was my laft to your 
Honors, to which I refer. 

»!• fcl- ^ »1* »1* *!• *1^ vl* -i* 

<f» <I» rf« <f» #p» rj* *T» •T» *t* 

I defpatch thefe few lines 
at prefent by the bearers 
hereof, the Commiflary and 

( 79 ) 

Skipper of the Ship Sl John^ 
who coming from the CoafI: 
of Guinea with Negroes were 
wrecked on Rocus on the 
Voyage hither, leaving behind 
them fome Eighty living Slaves, 
belides many and a greater 
number of dead ones who were 
ftarved on the way for want 
of food. Your Honors will 
pleafe fee in the accompanying 
Papers what diligence I have 
ufed to fave thofe living \ alfo, 
how the Sea Rovers, of whom 
I heretofore advifed you, have 
carried off not only the Ne- 
groes, but alfo the befl: of the 
Company's Barks, as appears 

( 8o ) 

by the faid Papers, to which 
and to the verbal Report of 
the aforefaid Commiflary and 
Skipper I, for brevity fake, 

With fubmiffion to your 
Honors, it would in my opi- 
nion not be unadvifable if a 
fuitable well fitted Veffel or 
Yacht could be obtained, car- 
rying half a dozen guns. She 
could be employed in bringing 
Horfes from Aruba to Bonayre 
and this place, many of which 
are now bitten to death by 
the Rattlefnakes there, and on 
fuch occurring occafions be 
manned with hands fufficient 

( 8i ) 

to overhaul fucbx Sea Rovers, 
and ufed for various other 

As it is in the higheft de- 
gree neceffary to look after the 
Sea Rovers, in order at leaft 
to imprefs them with the fear 
of approaching fo near us, 
I have chartered a fmall pri- 
vate Boat, mounting y/AT guns, 
ftrongly manned and double 
armed to look up the afore- 
faid Sea Robbers at the place 
where, we prefume, they are 
fojourning, in the hope of 
obtaining not only fome ad- 
vantage over them, but if we 
fhould catch the Ringleaders, 

( 82 ) 

of having fuch punifhment 
inflided on them as would 
lerve as an example to others. 
Herein we fhall not fail in 
our duty. 

( 83 ) 

Dire&or Beck to DireSior 
Curasao, 4. February, 1660. 

MY laft dated 23 Auguft 
and loth September 
were fent your Honor by the 
Ship Sphera Mundi as per 
copies annexed, to which I 
refer. Since then, I have had 
none of yours to acknowledge. 
Therefore this fhall be the 
fhorter, the rather as I tranf- 
mit enclofed to you open the 
accompanying defpatch to our 
Lords Mafters, in order that 

( 84 ) 

you may, yourfelf, be able to 
fee from it what tranfpired 
here, and having taken cog- 
nizance thereof to feal and 
fend it by the firjft faiHng Ship 
to Amfterdam to the Lords 

As your Honor will be able 
to glean from the Informations 
and Papers inclofed therein, 
what fort of Sea Rovers here 
have taken the Company's 
Negroes and Bark, among 
which vifitors was alfo to be 
found one Pickled Herrings 
who formerly went privateer- 
ing with Captain Beaulieuw^ 
and now and then makes his 

( 85 ) 

appearance in your Honor's 
jurifdidion in New N ether - 
land^ and poffibly fome of the 
Ringleaders of them may land 
there, we wifh, in fuch cafe, 
that they were made known 
to you, to the end that you 
may caufe fuch Juftice to be 
adminiftered to them as they 

If your Honor have an 
opportunity of writing to 
Jamaica^ where I partly un- 
derftand thefe Rovers have 
arrived, and where they have 
no Counter party and can 
make fuch Reprefentation as 
they pleafe to the General 

( 86 ) 

there, your Vigilance might 
effe6t a great deal of good by 
tranfmitting a Letter on the 
fubjedl to him, which fhall 
alfo be done here when an 
opportunity offers. 

•t^ ^ Jf» rj* <f»' <f' rj" •X' <t' 

I greatly defired that the 
Ships expected with Negroes 
had arrived, in order to enable 
me to fend your Honor fome 
lufty fellows, but none have 
come up to this date, although 
looked for every day. We 
muft poftpone doing fo until 
the next opportunity, God 



Cl)e Zxms of ZmQtxt^am 






AULUS Heyn Ridder 
from Staden^ aged 
about 51 years. Pilot 
of the Ship the Arms of Am- 
Jierdam^ and heendert Jacques 
van Cuelen^ born at Amjler- 
dam^ aged about 26 years, 
Affiftant Commiffary, who 
arrived here yefterday from 
Virginia^ in Mr. Fofcotns Bark, 

( 90 ) 

appeared at the Meeting of the 
Director General and Council 
of New Netherlands and made 
known and declared as fol- 
loweth : 

That they, the Deponents, 
fet fail from the Cajlle del 
Mina on the 2ift February 
laft in the fervice and for the 
account of the Hon^^^ Incor- 
porated Weft India Company, 
Chamber at Amfterdam, in 
the Ship the Arms of Amjler- 
dam^ at which time Jan Ger- 
ritfen Nuchteren^ who died on 
the paflage on the , 

was Skipper, with orders and 
command from the Hon^^^ Ge- 

(91 ) 

neral Jan Valckenburgh to 
repair to Loango in Angola^ 
to take in a cargo of Slaves 
there, and convey them to the 
Ifland of Curaqao, 

April 1 5 . Having arrived at 
Loango and taken on board i o i 
head of Slaves there for account 
of the abovementioned Com- 

On the 28 th of faid month, 
again fet fail for Curaqao, 

June 20. Sighted Curaqao^ 
but could not reach faid Ifland 
in confequence of the ftrong 
Current and ftiff EafI: wind. 
Having vainly endeavored, 
during three days and three 

(92 ) 

nights, to laveer, and Water 
beginning to get very low, we 
were necefiitated to change 
our courfe, and thus 

July 2, came to the Salt 
ground oi Cayman^ which is one 
of the Cayman lilands, where, 
whilft engaged in taking Water 
and fome Turtle on board, on 

July 6, about noon. Jive 
Ships came to anchor there; 
four with Englifh flags and 
one under Portuguese colors, 
which laft, called the Maria 
oi London^ whereof on^ Robert 
Douwneman was Captain, after 
fhe had taken fome hands on 
board from the other Ships, 

( 93 ) 

immediatdy weighed anchor 
again, and came down on the 
Deponent's Ship, calling out, 
"Strike for the King of Por- 
tugal ;" and at once, without 
giving time to ftrike, fired a 
fhotted Cannon and a difcharge 
of Mufketry killing two Ne- 
groes dead, and wounding 
one Dutchman. After having 
thus fired, came ftraight on 
board, feized the Ship and 
Negroes, forced the Crew to 
go to the Ship aforefaid and 
plundered every thing. The 
Captains of the four Engliflh 
Ships abovementioned, one of 
whom was called Captain Gey 

(9+ ) 

and another. Captain Brom- 
merty got fome of the Negroes 
becaufe they had furnifhed him 
men, but the Deponents do 
not know how many. After 
they had lain there fome days, 
faid Captain having firft dif- 
mantled his own Frigate fet 
her on fire, and 

July 1 8, failed thence with 
the aforefaid Ship, The Arms 
of Amjlerdam^ having enlifted 
fome of the Sailors, giving out 
that he intended to fail to 
Montferrat in the Caribbean 
Iflands, but as the Ship was a 
poor Sailer, and Water was 
fhort, he fet fail for Virginia 
and arrived 

(95 ) 

September lo, in the Bay 

September 19, arrived at Eli- 
zabeth's river ^ whence the De- 
ponent went to Nancimon. 

October 6, departed thence 
for this place in Mr. Fofcofn's 
Bark, and arrived here yefter- 

All which they declared to 
be true and truthful. In tef- 
timony whereof thefe prefents 
are iigned by them in Fort 
Amjlerdam in New Nether- 
land ^x!^^^'^'^ OBoberA'' 1663. 






CJ)e ^labe CraUe 


DireElors at A?nfterda7n to 
DireBor Stuyvesant. 

[1646.] TJAVING obferved that 
1- X more Negroes could 
be profitably traded off there than 
were carried thither in the Ship 
Tamandare, we fhall pay attention 
that for the future more Negroes 
fhall be conveyed thither. 

I ICO j 
Bill of Sale of a Negro, 

BEFORE me Cornells Van 
Tlenhoven^ Secretary of New 
Netherlands appeared Fredrick Lub- 
berfen^ who declared to have fold 
unto Richard Lord, a Negro named 
Anthony^ which Negro, he the 
Grantor hereby conveys and tranf- 
ports in right ownerfhip to the 
abovenamed Richard Lord, who 
fhall be at liberty to ufe the faid 
Negro during his life, at all fuch 
work, as he, Richard Lord, fhall 
think proper. He Fredrick Lub- 
berfen declares from this day forward 
to defifl: from all property in the 
faid Negro. In teftimony whereof 
thefe prefents are ligned by Fredrick 
Lubberfen and witnefs hereunto in- 
vited, 28th 9ber 1646. 

Frerick Lubbertsen. 

To my knowledge, 

CoRNELis VAN TiENHOVEN, Secretary. 

AdRIAEN van TiENHOVEN, Wlttiefs. 

DireElors at Ajnjlerdam to 
Director Stuyvesant. 

EFFORTS are juft now making 
at the Hague before their High 
Mightinelles to effed; a general Re- 
form in all the Colonial polleffions 
of this Company, and New Nether- 
land alfo was remembered on that 
occafion. It has been already pro- 
vilionally refolved that all Colonifts 
of that Country fliall be empowered 
to export their produces of Flour, 
Fifh, Beef, Pork, Peas, Beans, &c., 
in their own, or in chartered Ships 
to Brajil, and Angola; that faid 
Ships may again take freight from 
Brajil to this Country, but that 
thofe who have completed their 
trade in Angola (hall be at liberty 
to convey Negroes back home to 
be employed in the cultivation of 

( 102 ) 

their lands. By this refolution 
Your Honor will obferve that we 
ourfelves are at liberty to fend a 
Ship with all forts of Provifions to 
Angola and to convey Negroes back 
in return. Therefore pleafe to em- 
brace this opportunity as quickly as 
poffible with the Provifions which 
you fay you will have remaining. 
Amjhrdam, jth April, 1648. 

DireSiors at A^njierdam to 
the Commonalty at the 

AND in order that you may be 
the more fully affured of our 
good intention, we do hereby con- 
fent that the Commonalty yonder 
fhall have liberty to repair to the 

( I03 ) 

Coafl of Angola and Africa, and 
tranfport thence as many Negroes 
as they will make ufe of for the 
cultivation of their Lands, on the 
Conditions and regulations which 
are fent herewith to the Dired:or. 
•^ -^ -^ -^ -^ 

Amjlerdam, \th April, 1652. 

DireElors at Amfierdam to 
DireSlor Stuyvesant. 

WE have by contrad: given and 
granted to fome private Mer- 
chants permiffion empowering them 
to repair to the Coaft of Africa to 
trade for Slaves there, and to carry 
and convey them to the Wejl Indies 
and the Iflands lituate thereabout, 
and as we exped: that the aforefaid 

( 10+ I 

Ships or fome of them will go to 
New Netherland to fell their Slaves 
alfo to the Inhabitants there, in fuch 
cafe we defire and requeft that Your 
Honor will not demand any Duties 
from them, but lend them all rea- 
fonable Affiftance, in order to the 
removal of every obftacle which 
might prove a hinderance to Agri- 
culture. This for your information 
and notification.* 

^ rj^ rjC rjC ^f• 

Af?ijierda?n, this 6th June, 1653. 

* Note by Dr. Vanderkemp. — Here are reported 
unqueftionable Fafls that the Dutch were the chief 
Supporters of the Slave Trade, ftamping their Seal 
on the Declaration of one of the Magiftrates of 
Amfterdam to Prince Frederick, " that he would 
fend a Cargo to Hell 2X the Rifk of fingeing his 
Sails if he were lure of a profperous Voyage." 


( '05 ) 

Rejolution of the AJfemblj of 
the XIX. 

Monday^ 15 September, 1653. 

TPIE Committee appointed for 
this purpofe reports with re- 
gard to the Ninth Article relative 
to Privateering, as the refult of their 
deliberations, that the Regulation of 
the year 1646 on this fubjed: ought 
to remain in force, but in order to 
encourage Individuals, in this cri- 
tical conjuncSlure, to equip Velfels 
to annoy the Enemy, it might be 
permitted, belides lowering the 
duties granted in 1652, that the 
following alterations be provilion- 
ally adopted : 

:l: * * * * 

The Negroes coming in prizes 
from beyond the Seas, and nothing 


( io6 ) 

elfe, may be exported, with the 
confent of the Government in 
Brazil, to all fuch places as the 
interefted may deem proper. 


The duties which the Company 
receives from all prize goods brought 
in and mentioned in the aforefaid 
rule, Negroes included, fhall be 
reduced to ten per cent, and no 

DireSiors at Amjlerdam to 
DireSior Stuyvesant. 

26. \ FTER clofmg and difpatch- 
-ZjL ing the duplicate hereof 
which goes by the Ship The Black 
Eagle, we have on the Petition of 
fome private Merchants, viz., Jan 

( I07 ) 

Sweerts and Dirck Pieterfen Witte- 
paerty and in order to promote 
Population and Agriculture there, 
confented and allowed that they 
may go with their Ship the Witte- 
paert to the Coaft of Africa, and 
having trafficked for Slaves there, 
convey the fame to New Net her land 
to be fold to the Inhabitants there, 
provided that of the Goods and 
returns proceeding from faid Slaves, 
and which {hall be brought back 
in the abovementioned Ship, there 
fhall be paid to the Company 
the lawful Duties fixed thereon, or 
otherwife the ordinary Tonnage 
duty according to the regulation 
enabled at the Coaft of Africa, at 
the Company's option, as appears by 
the annexed extract of Refolutions 
adopted on the 19th of this month. 
* ^f: * * * 

Amjlerdam, ^'T^d November, 1654. 


Refolution of the A^njlerdajn 
Chamber of the Weft India 

No. 26. 

Thiirfday, the i()th Novetn- | 
ber, 1654. J 

MR. fan de Sweerts and Dirck 
Pieterfen Wittepaert ap- 
peared before the AlTembly, and 
requefted permiffion to proceed 
hence with their Ship the Witte 
paert, to the CoafI: of Africa for 
Slaves, and to difpofe of thefe in 
New Netherlands on payment of 
the ordinary Tonnage, or the Duty 
fixed therefor. Queftion being put, 
confiderable difcuffion enfued, and 
as it was underftood that fuch would 
tend to the increafe of Population 
and advancement of faid Place, the 

( '09 j 

fame was confented to, on condition 
that the Company fhall have the 
option, on the arrival of faid Ship, 
which muft come in here, to col- 
led: the proper Duties of the Goods 
which (he is to bring with her, or 
the ordinary Tonnage duty, accord- 
ing to the Regulation enacted on 
the Coaft of Africa, with which 
the abovementioned Melf^'^ fan de 
Sweerts and Dirck Pieterfen Witte- 
paert are fatisfied. 

Ordinance impojtng a Duty on 
Exported Slaves. 

Friday, 6. Aiiguji, 1655. 

WHEREAS the Direftor Ge- 
neral and Council of New 
Netherland find that the Negroes 

( "o ) 

lately arrived here from the Bight 
of Guinea in the Ship Witte Paert, 
have been tranfported and carried 
hence without the Hon^'"^ Company 
or the Inhabitants of this Province 
having derived any Revenue or 
benefit therefrom, the Diredior 
General and Council have refolved 
and concluded that there fhall be 
paid at the General Treafury lo 
per cent of the value or purchafe 
monev of the Negroes who fhall 
be carried away or exported from 
here elfewhere beyond the Jurif- 
did:ion of New Nether land. Dated 
as above. 

P. Stuyvesant, 


La Montagne. 

1 1 1 


Refolution of the DireEior Ge- 
neral and Council of New 

Tuefday, 2\th Augufi, ^^SS- 

THE Petition of Edmund Schar- 
burgh being read, requefting 
permiffion to depart from this place 
to Virginia with his Vefiel and fome 
Negroes he has purchafed, this 
Apoftile was given : 

The Requeft is granted, on con- 
dition that the Petitioner give bail 
in the fum of five thoufand Pounds 
fterling, not to enter the South Bay 
or River, and that his Crew pro- 
mife under Oath not go there, nor 
communicate any intelligence by 
Sea or Land to any perfon whom- 

* Referring to the Expedition againll; the Swedes, 
on the Delaware River, then about to fail. 

( "2 ) 


Refolutmi of the Chamber at 

Monday, 3^. April, 1656. 

IT being reprefented that a Ship, 
with the confent of the Diredt- 
ors of Medenblick, depending on 
the Chamber of Wejl FrieJIand and 
The North garter, has failed to 
the Coaft of Africa for Slaves, with 
intention to fell them at the Ifland 
of Cura^ao^^ or to trade them on the 
Main, it is refolved to oppofe the 
aforefaid fale or barter, and to write 
to Vice Diredor Beck there, to 
detain the aforefaid Ship and Slaves 
and to proceed therewith fo and in 

* Curasao was exclufively under the Diredion of 
the Chamber at Amfterdam, and it may be inferred 
from the above that the exclufive Control of the 
Dutch Slave Trade was alfo veiled in that Chamber. 

( "3 ) 

fuch manner as he fhall find con- 
fiftent with law. 

Fke DireElor Beck to the 
Dire&ors at Amjlerdajn. 

Curasao, 1 1. yufie, ^^57- 

Honorable, Refped:ed, Wife, Pru- 
dent and moft Difcreet Gentlemen. 


MY laft to your Honors was by- 
way of the Caribbean IJlands, 
which I hope has been received 
long ere this. Since then fafely 
arrived here the Freight-boat with 
thofe who were commiffioned and 
fent for purpofes explained in our 
previous difpatch, from this place, 
to the Caraquas^ the principal Capi- 
tal of the Main, lying neareft this 


1 1 

+ ) 

Ifland, bringing with them the 
written Anfwer of the Governor of 
faid locality, who, as reprefented, 
was favorably inclined to what was 
propofed to him in our letter, yet 
dared not manifeft fuch in public, 
becaufe, as he alleges, of the Limits 
agreed upon and concluded in the 
Articles or Treaty of Peace between 
his Royal Majefty of Spain and 
their High MightinelTes the Lords 
States General. The original Letter 
received from there, mentioned 
above, goes herewith, together with 
the Relation and Verbal Report 
of the difpolition in which our 
two Commiffioners, who were fent 
thither, found them. Neverthelefs, 
in order to avoid fufpicion and ar- 
reft, and on account of fome Ships 
lying there, they did not find it 
expedient to deliver the principal 
and feparate Memorial entrufted to 

( "5 ) 

them to the Governor and Chief 
Authorities of that place, the rather 
as no occalion or opportunity pre- 
fented itfelf ; for they had not been 
further than the beach in the Harbor 
and under the Fortrefs, whence they 
had been again difpatched without 
having been invited to Caraquas, 
the Capital. They were, however, 
by order and command of the 
Governor of Caraqiias courteoufly 
entertained by the chief officers of 
the Fortrefs and place, of the Vil- 
lage and Harbor where they lay 
and were offered every thing they 
ftood in need of for the profecution 
of their Voyage to Eiijiatius. They 
report that they have had many 
inquiries and folicitations for goods, 
fuch as Silks, Linens and Hats, but 
they excufed themfelves ; trade to 
their Coafts, Harbors and Territories 
not being permitted, they dared not 

( i'6 ) 

bring any thing with them. But 
on the other hand, if they had an 
opportunity, and would pleafe to 
come to Curasao, to purchafe Ne- 
groes and Merchandize, they would 
be welcome there and accommo- 
dated to their fatisfad:ion either for 
Specie, Hides, Tobacco or other 
commodities faleable in Europe. 
They had communicated to divers 
individuals the feparaie Memorial 
with which they had been entrufted, 
and had, according to opportunity, 
divulged it to them as amply and 
fully as was in their power, and 
ftimulated fome thereby to fuch a 
degree as to create hope that fome 
time or other it will produce fruit. 
Your Honors can inform yourfelves 
more fully on the fubjeft by refer- 
ence to the Reports and Documents 
fent herewith. 

A certain Bifcayan, an inhabitant 

( "7 ) 

of Caraquas had, among others, an 
interview with our Commiffioners 
and gave them to underftand that 
he had a new Veffel on the ftocks 
there with which he was intending 
at an early day to make a Voyage 
along the Main from Caraquas 
hitherward, to certain little Illands 
Iving in the neighborhood of, and 
oppofite Bonayre^ near the Main, to 
catch Turtle, and exped:ed to be 
engaged there three weeks. It was 
his intention, according to circum- 
ftances, to take with him, as a 
venture, fome Tobacco, Hides and 
other wares, in order, (hould people 
come there to trade with him and 
bring along fuch goods as would be 
of ufe to him, that he would have 
payment ready for them, and alfo 
have a better opportunity to con- 
verfe about other trade. 

With a view, therefore, to en- 

( ii8 ) 

courage thofe people more and 
more in our favor, I refolved, upon 
the abovementioned Report, by ad- 
vice of and after communication 
with the adjoined Council here, to 
fend one of the Company's Sloops, 
with a fmall cargo of fuch things 
as we could obtain here, as a ven- 
ture thither. I found faid Bifcayan 
faithful to his propofal and promife, 
only he was prevented bringing any 
Hides or Tobacco with him, by 
being obliged, by the Governor of 
Caraquas, to convey fome perfons 
for the King to Porto Cabelhoy and 
in order not to create any evil fuf- 
picion in their minds, he dared not 
on this occalion bring any thing 
with him in his Bark except a little 
rough Copper or Slacken which he 
exchanged for the fmall cargo he 
befpoke from our people, and fur- 
ther made a Propofal and even 

( "9 ) 

wrote a Letter to me with his own 
hand, the original whereof is an- 
nexed, to purchafe the Company's 
Negroes, that is, all that are here at 
prefent, on the following condi- 
tions, to wit ; That the Company 
fhall have a Ship with their own 
Crew here ready for ihe Negroes 
to embark in, and when refolved 
to accept his offer, to let him know 
by thofe recently with him, at the 
place delignated by him, when he 
will without lofs of time, repair in 
perfon to this harbor, and enter into 
an Agreement and terms for what 
articles and at what price the Ne- 
groes iliall be delivered at the place 
where he hopes to bring them in 
fafety and without danger ; and that 
he will not receive any Negroes 
before payment for them Ihall be 
made on board the Ship, and he or 
his partner iliall remain on board 

( I20 ) 

the Ship, with the Negroes, until 
the Conditions and Agreement 
which will be made here, fliall be 
fully carried out. 

He reports that the place to 
which he fays he will convey them 
is on the North fide of Cuba^ where 
the (Spanifli) Nation has no Fortrefs 
nor means to prevent the projed; or 
to difturb them ; alfo that he will 
leave his own Coulin, who is like- 
wife related to the friends to whom 
he will convey the Negroes, here 
at Curagao as a Hoftage and fecu- 
rity, until it be manifeft that he 
{hall have performed in good faith 
all he has promifed ; as more fully 
appears by the annexed Relation 
and report of Cornet Balthazar Van 
Efs and Johati Rombouts on the 
fubjed:. He has requefted an an- 
fwer to this, for his information. I 
therefore wifh your Honors' early 

[ 121 } 

Inftrudlions hereupon, as to what I 
fhall do, or omit in this matter, and 
that in the meanwhile I may re- 
ceive a fupply of provilions fufficient 
for the Negroes to enable me to 
wait for him. 

^ ^ ^ :^ r^ 

I have received the Agreement 
and Condition which Your Honors 
have concluded with Mr. Henricus 
Matthias, merchant of Amfterdam, 
refpediing the Negroes. On look- 
ing and reading it over, I find it 
very favorable for that gentleman, 
wherefore my impreffion is that 
your Honors' intention in con- 
cluding it is to begin and introduce 
the trade here. I Ihall not be 
wanting, God willing, in obeying 
and executing your Honors' or- 
ders and Inftrudions in this regard 
faithfully and to my beft ability. 
Meanwhile, fhould it happen that 


( 122 ) 

Mr. Henricus Matthias's expected 
Ship did not arrive here, as it has 
not yet done, I fhall exped; your 
further order and anfwer whether 
we fliall dare to proceed or not 
with the Negroes on the aforefaid 
Bifcayan's prefented propofals ex- 
tended as above. In the ftrong 
hope and expectation that we Ihall 
be able to open a trade with our 
neareft neighbors, I fhall purchafe 
on your Honors' account a fmall 
cargo from Skipper Simon Corne- 
lijfen Gilde, (o that they may at 
leaft find fomething on coming 
here ; and our Veffels on pafUng 
near Bonayre may advife the Bif- 
cayan and the other Inhabitant 
already mentioned, what goods can 
be purchafed here on arriving, 
taking a fample along to fliow them, 
fhould occafion prefent, and, at the 
fame time, inform the Bifcayan that 

( 123 ) 

I have not received any orders to 
allow Negroes to leave the Illand 
until payment for them has been 
made, and that I fliall let him have, 
within four months after date, a 
fuller and more explicit anfwer 
which I hope I fliall receive from 
your Honors in the meantime. 

I am confident that on thefe 
Conditions he would readily give 
Two hundred pieces of Eight for a 
merchantable Negro or Negrefs, 
one with another, whilfl: he gave 
us to underftand, that the price of 
Hides would be Eighteen (hillings. 

( iH ) 

Vice Dire&or Beck to the Di- 
reElors at Amflerdmn. 

Curasao, 28. July, 1657. 

AS I advifed your Honors in my 
laft, I difpatched the Freight- 
boat to the appointed and prefixed 
place — a certain fmall Illand near 
the Main — to the Bifcayan and fent 
him word on the fubjed: of his 
trading for Negroes, as I had in- 
formed your Honors more at large 
in my laft. Whereupon he refolved 
to vilit this place in perfon, in our 
aforefaid Freight-boat [Stygerfchuit). 
He was accompanied by a certain 
Padre, named Friar Francis to pur- 
chafe a few parcels of merchandize 
with one or two little Negro Girls. 

( '25 ) 

I alfo fold to the abovenamed Bif- 
cayan, a fmall Negro Boy with a 
few goods, for which he had brought 
with him fome Hides and Tobacco 
in our aforefaid Boat ; thefe are fent 
herewith as a fpecimen by the Ship 
Ojtrich, the price of the Hides 
being Fifteen fliiUings each and of 
the Tobacco Six pieces of Eight the 
Arobe of Twe?ity Jive Pounds. I 
have fold to the aforefaid Padre 
Friar Francis, goods to the amount 
of Four hundred pieces of Eight 
and two little Negro Girls, all at a 
fair and reafonable price, in order 
to encourage and ftimulate them to 
come to thefe Ports to trade, which 
I think is greatly for the Company's 
intereft. Wherefore, I let the Pa- 
dre have the two little Negro Girls 
@ One hundred and Jifty pieces of 
Eight each, which together amounts 
to Three hundred pieces of Eight, 

( 126 ) 

and to the aforefaid Bifcayan a little 
Boy @ One hundred and twenty 
pieces of Eight. The Merchan- 
dizes which I fold them were 
purchafed from the bearer hereof, 
Simon Corneliffen Glide, Skipper of 
the Ship Ojirich, exprelTly for this 
purpofe on your Honors' account 
before their arrival, in order that 
our neareft Neighbors on coming 
here may at leaft on fuch occafion 
find fomething for the afking, until 
your Honors might fend fuch car- 
goes as the cafe requires, as I have 
partly explained in my laft. 

Although the abovementioned 
Padre, Friar Yrancis, did not bring 
with him any payment for what he 
purchafed, yet could I not let him 
go away empty handed, as it was 
the firfl time, in confequence of the 
converfation and verbal Agreement 
entered into with our Commilfary 

( 127 j 

and Skipper of the Freight-boat 
before his arrival here — that is, to 
let them return to the appointed 
place with what they had purchafed, 
on condition that they Ihould not 
land, much lefs receive polTelTion of 
what has not been paid for here, 
until they have made payment 
therefor to the Com miliary and 
Skipper of the aforefaid freight 
Boat, in good and fufficient Hides. 

:i: jfi * :^ * 

With regard to the trade in Ne- 
groes, the aforefaid Bifcayan, now 
here, hath given me fuch explana- 
tions and further information on 
that point, that we can come to 
no other conclulion than that a 
good and favorable refult is to be 
expected from it. He hath com- 
municated to me the moft dired: 
and fhorteft route, how and in 
what manner not only a fhipload of 

( 128 ) 

Negroes, but fucceffively a cargo of 
good faleable Merchandize befides 
could be traded off. Were a Ship 
with necelTaries in the harbor here, 
he is wilUng on receiving notice 
thereof at the appointed place, to 
come here and enter into fuch 
agreement with the Company from 
which as he firmly believes, he and 
the Company would derive great 

The place the Negroes fliould be 
conveyed to is called Porto Velo, 
the ftaple place of trade. Permif- 
fion can be obtained to difpofe of 
the cargo freely there on paying 
One hundred and thirteen pieces of 
Eight for each Negro, which is 
the Royalty. But fuch permiffion 
is not given except to perfons of 
their own Nation ; but it can be 
obtained under the pretext that they 
had chartered a Dutch Ship and 

( 129 ) 

Crew to fetch and bring over the 
Negroes, and that the Negroes and 
Merchandize in the Ship are the 
property of their Nation. 

Such is the manner in which the 
aforefaid Bifcayan would contrad; 
for and purchafe Negroes from the 
Company on the following Condi- 
tions : That he, or his companion, 
with five or fix more of their Nation, 
fhall embark at their own expenfe 
with the Company's Skipper, Com- 
millary, Crew and Matrolfes in the 
Ship lying ready to fail and profe- 
cute with them their Voyage to 
Porto Veto, and after receiving a 
permit there from the Governor, 
fell the Negroes which they know 
they can fell immediately after their 
arrival at fuch a high price that the 
outlay of the aforefaid Royalty in 
order to obtain the Permit, may 
be eafily repaid. Therefore, they 


( 13° ) 

will undertake this themfelves, and 
pay to the Company, after fafe 
arrival there, for each Negro and 
Negrefs between Eighteen and thirty 
years of age. Two hundred Reals or 
Pieces of Eight, in Silver bars or 
pieces of Eight ; further they will 
be able to obtain there a proper 
permit to trade then to other places, 
to load the Ship with fuch cargo 
and freight as the countries fupply 
and are moft profitable to the 
country. In like manner, the price 
for the Goods being agreed upon 
and arranged here, the payment 
there for them fhall be made in 
the fame manner as for the Negroes, 
but the rifk of the Sea and the 
expenfes of the Negroes, until they 
arrive at the above place, muft be 
borne by the Company, but when 
arrived there, they will be refpon- 
fible for them. For the full per- 

( 131 ) 

formance of the Conditions which 
fhall be made here on the part of the 
Company, the aforefaid Bifcayan 
offers to flake his Hfe, and even to 
remain here in perfon in the Fort, 
or to leave another refponlible per- 
fon here in cuftody of the Company 
at the rifk of his Hfe, if any fraud 
is, or has been intended or defigned. 
And it is further conditioned that 
the Negroes in their minority, as 
well as old and deformed ones, muft 
be difpofed of at a fpecial and lower 
price. On thefe terms he is refolved, 
at all times from now henceforth, 
whenever a Ship with Negroes will 
be ready here, at the time and place 
to be named where advice is to be 
fent him, to come hither and with 
God's merciful help faithfully to per- 
form whatever is abovementioned. 
The other Plan or propofal men- 
tioned in my laft, to run the Negroes 

i 132 ) 

in at the north fide of Cuba, is not, 
he fays, fo fealible as this. 

Charter of the Ship Eyckenboom 
for a Voyage to Africa and 
New Netherland. 

IN the Name of the Lord, Amen. 
In the year of the birth of 
Our Lord and Saviour Jefus Chriji, 
1659, the 25th of January, be- 
fore me Henrick Schaeff, admitted 
by the Court of Holland a Notary 
Pubhc reliding in Anijierdam, and 
the underfigned witnelTes, in their 
own perfons came and appeared 
Meffieurs Edward Man and Abra- 
ham Wihnerdoncx, Directors of the 
Incorporated Weft India Company 
at the Chamber here in Amjlerdam 

hereunto authorized by the Board 
of their AlTociates, as charterers on 
the one part, and Skipper ^an 
'Janfen Eyckenboom of Hoorn, Maf- 
ter under God, of his Ship named 
the Eyckenboom^ long i^xx, wide 
XXV and one half, hold xi and one 
half, over it five and one half and 
fix feet, with a half deck and 
forecafi:le on either fide, and the 
aforefaid parties declared and do 
hereby declare to have made and 
concluded together a certain Con- 
tract for a charter of faid Ship, in 
the form and manner hereinafter 
defcribed. To wit : 

That the aforefaid Skipper fiiall 
be bound immediately to deliver 
his aforefaid Ship here in the City 
fitted out, tight, well caulked, and 
provided with good and fufiicient 
anchors, cordage, tackle, fails, run- 
ning and fi:anding rigging and all 

( 13+ ) 

Other necelTaries and appurtenances 
thereunto belonging, and the fame 
to mount with Ten good pieces of 
Cannon, with the requifite powder 
and {hot and other ammunition in 
proportion, but the necelTary con- 
fumption of powder and fhot afore- 
faid fliall be made good by the 
Company, which fhall alfo put on 
board faid Ship in addition to the 
Ten pieces aforefaid as many other 
guns as they pleafe and can conve- 
niently place, and iliall provide and 
pay the expence of the powder and 
fliot therefor, on condition that in 
the necelTary confumption thereof, 
the aforefaid Skipper fhall bear the 
contingent of his Ship aforefaid ; 
that further, faid Company fhall 
man faid Ship with fuch and fo 
many hands and provide them with 
fuch flores as faid Company will 
pleafe and think proper. Which 

( 135 ) 

being done on the one fide and the 
other, the aforefaid Ship fliall on 
the part of faid Company, be laden 
with a full and fuitable cargo, or to 
fuch extent as faid Company fliall 
think proper ; being laden with all 
fuch goods, wares and merchandizes 
as they will determine, the aforefaid 
Ship fhall, with the firft fair wind 
and weather that God will grant, 
be difpatched and fail from this 
country direct to the Coafi: o{ Af- 
rica and run along faid Coaft from 
above downward, or from Cape 
Verd down, and touch, trade, lie 
and remain at all trading pofts and 
ports, according to the pleafure of 
faid Company and their Commif- 
fary, unto the Cafiile ^t. George d'el 
Mina, where they fliall receive or 
find orders from the Company's 
Diredior General and Council or 
fhall be furniflied with them on 

( 136 ) 

failing hence ; And fail towards the 
Bight of Guinea and touch and 
trade at all other places lying therein 
according to the order which fhall 
be given him by the Director Ge- 
neral or here ; from thence proceed 
further to the Illands of Curagao^ 
Bonaire, and Aruba in the Weji 
Indies, and alfo to New Netherlands 
and all round every where elfe the 
Company, or its Minifters, fhall 
determine and order, and likewife 
at all faid quarters and places trade 
and traffic Goods, Wares and Mer- 
chandizes and alfo take in people, 
load and unload at the pleafure of 
the aforefaid Company or its Min- 
ifters ; And to that end fail to and 
from, run hither and thither, an- 
chor, lie, load and unload at faid 
Coafts, Quarters and Places as often 
and as frequently and fo long as the 
fervice of the Company fuch fhall 

( ^37 ) 

demand ; Furthermore, return and 
come thence to this city Atnllerdatn 
or the deftined port of difcharge, 
and on her fafe return and arrival, 
there difcharge and deHver to the 
aforefaid Company her laden return 
cargo and goods. Which done, 
there fhall be paid to him the 
Skipper for the contracted freight, 
every month, the fum of Eight 
hundred guilders of xx ftivers each, 
on condition that the Company is 
bound for the term of Six fucceffive 
months or longer, to be calculated 
according to the length of time, all 
current months according to the 
Almanac, to run and commence 
when the Ship Ihall, in the profe- 
cution of the Voyage, reach the 
Sea outfide the laft buoy of the 
Texel, and to expire when fhe fhall 
arrive and caft anchor before this 
city of Amjlerdam or her deftined 

( 138 ) 

port of difcharge, payable xiiii days 
@ three weeks after the aforefaid 
difcharge here, befides average and 
pilotage according to the cuftom of 
the Sea, and over and above alfo 
Hat money for the abovenamed 
Skipper at the Company's difcre- 
tion. And faid Skipper, with and 
beiides the Company's Crew, fhall 
alfo make the Voyage with the 
aforefaid Ship in order to look to 
faid Ship, her appurtenances, &c., 
making ufe of the Company's ftores, 
but the monthly pay or wages not 
being at its charge ; And he fliall 
be, over and above, fubjed: to the 
orders and inftrudtions, articles and 
other rules of the Company during 
the Voyage, no more nor lefs than 
if he had been fworn to obferve the 
fame, they being taken as inferted 
herein, and efpecially alfo in regard 
to particular or private forbidden 

( 139 ) 

trading, in fliipping or conveyance of 
particular or private goods, merchan- 
dizes or wares, on pain according 
to the aforefaid Articles, Orders and 
Inftrucflions of the faid Company. 
The abovementioned Directors, par- 
ties hereunto, pledging for the pay- 
ment of the aforefaid contracted 
monthly or freight moneys, average 
and pilotage, their private perfons 
and property, and the aforefaid 
Skipper, fpecially, alfo his perfon. 
Ship, appurtenances and contracted 
freight moneys, and generally all 
his other property, real and perfonal, 
prefent and to come without any 
exception, fubmitting the fame to 
the Court of Holland and all laws 
and judges, all aboveboard. Done 
at Amjterdam in the prefence of 
Cryn van Seventer and Marten He- 
gervelt, free citizens (poorters) here, 
witnelfes hereunto invited. 

( HO ) 

Bill of Lading of Negroes, 

I "Jan Pieterfen oi Dockum, Skipper 
' under God of my Ship named 
the Spera Mundi^ now lying ready 
before Curasao, with the fir ft fair 
wind which God fhall vouchfafe, 
to fail to New Netherlands where 
my corred: unloading fhall take 
place, acknowledge that I have 
received under the deck of my 
aforefaid Ship, from you Frans 
Bruyn, to wit. Five Negroes, whereof 
one is a Negrefs, all dry and well 
conditioned, and marked with the 
annexed mark. All which I pro- 
mife to deliver (if God grant me a 
fafe Voyage) with my aforefaid Ship 
at A^. Netherland aforefaid, to the 
Hon^^^ Director General Petrus 
Stuyvefant, or his Factor or Depu- 

( HI ) 

ties, on payment for the freight 
of the above defcribed goods, at 
the difcretion of the faid Dired:or 
General, and for the performance 
hereof, I bind myfelf, and all my 
goods and my aforefaid Ship and 
appurtenances. In witnefs of the 
truth, I have figned three Copies 
hereof with my name, all of the 
fame tenor, the one being fatislied, 
the others to be void. Written at 
Curasao the 24th day of Aiigujl, 
Anno 1659. 

Jan Pieters Gros 

of Dockum. 


( H2 ) 

Vice DireBor Beck to DireSlor 

Curasao, Augujl, 1659. 

Honorable, Valiant, Wife, Prudent 
and moft Difcreet Sir. 


I NOW tranfmit to your Honor 
duplicates of what I have al- 
ready fent by the Galiot New Amjiel, 
Skipper Augujiinus Heer??ians, and 
it will be very agreeable to me if I 
may be informed by the earlieft 
opportunity of their fpeedy and fafe 
arrival. I would not forego the 
prefent favorable occalion and op- 
portunity of the Ship Spera Mundi, 
Jan Pieterfen Skipper, to acquaint 
you of the circumftances of this 
Illand up to the prefent time (God 

( H3 ) 

be praifed ! ) in regard to the Com- 
merce with our neareft Neighbors. 
Hitherto there have not been im- 
ported as many goods as the demand 
requires, and efpecially the trade in 
Negroes at this place which the 
Company hath referved to itfelf, or 
elfe all are fold. 

There are lying here, at prefent, 
two Ships ready to fail hence for Fa- 
therland, which occupy my whole 
time, fo that I have not much 
leifure to write to your Honor at 
length. The one is the Company's 
Ship called the Ki?ig Solomon, which 
arrived here on the 2d of July from 
Guinea, with T^hree hundred and 
thirty one Slaves. Of thefe I have 
fold 300 @ One hundred and fifty 
pieces of Eight each, to a certain 
Spanifh trader whom I am daily 
expelling to come here and receive 
them, which I wiili may occur 

( H+ ) 

before the departure of the afore- 
faid two Ships in order to be able 
to tranfmit the proceeds to the 
Lords Mafters. 

Franck Bruyn purchafed out of 
the aforefaid lot of Negroes for 
your Honor, Two Boys and a Girl 
who go over in this Ship. I have 
done every thing poffible to proted: 
them againft the cold. Franck 
Bruyn hath alfo purchafed Two for 
CommilTary Van Br ugh, who like- 
wife go by this conveyance on 
faid CommifTary's account. Your 
Honor will pleafe to have fuch pay- 
ment collected therefor from faid 
Van Brugh for the Company, as 
you will confider juft. CommilTary 
Laurens van Ruyven hath alfo pur- 
chafed Two young Negroes here for 
account of his brother the Secretary 
of your Province, at the fame price 
as the lot fold for here, viz.. One 

( H5 J 

hundred 2indi fifty Patacoons/'^ I am 
ftill in daily expedation of a Ship 
with Negroes. I wiih they were 
come, even were they a thoufand 
head. I exped: the abovemen- 
tioned merchant here, as ah'eady 
ftated, to take away thofe of the 
Ki?ig Solomon. He is well able and 
will eagerly buy the whole lot at 

I have received orders from the 
Lords Mafters to fend your Honor 
again ft the Spring, fome fifteen or 
fxteen Negroes whom I could have 
eafily difpatched now, but we have 
no coarfe cloth to clothe them, and 
are fearful that they will not be 
able to endure the Winter there. 
As Negroes will be plenty here in 
future, I thought it beft, according 
to orders, to poftpone fending them 

* A Spanifh Coin of the Value of $1.04. 


( h6 ) 

until the Spring, when I fhall be 
fending a young Negro Girl for 
Mr. Augujiinus Heermans according 
to his requeft. Meanwhile, I hope 
to receive for my inftrudion, your 
Honor's advice and order as to 
whether you will require any more 
Negroes than the above, and of 
what age and in what numbers you 
wifli them fent. 

vY. 1^ :^ :^ :^ 

1659. December 26, Director 
Stuyvefant writing to the Directors 
at Holland fays : 

" The Negroes purchafed at Cu- 
rasao for fi\\o @ 150 and paid 
for, cannot be fold here (at New 
Amjierdajn) again at that price, 
either in Beaver or Tobacco, fo 
that all the expences of going and 
returning are entirely loft." 

( H7 ] 

Vice DireSior Beck to the 
DireEiors of the IVeft India 

Curasao, \th Feb.^ 1 660. 

Noble, Honorable, Refped:ed, Wife, 
Prudent and moft Difcreet 


MY laft to your Honors, dated 
5. January, as per copy en- 
clofed, was by the Ship Gideon^ 
Skipper Simon Cornelijfen by way of 
the Caribbean IJlands. 

•^ -^ -^ -^ -^ 

You will learn from my laft let- 
ters, and from the annexed papers 
fent again herewith, the fate of the 
Ship St. Johny which was due here 
from Guinea with Negroes, and 

( h8 ) 

which according to your Honors' 
orders was to replace the Ship Die- 
771611 here. What caufes us moft 
grief here is, that your Honors have 
thereby loft fuch a fine lot of Ne- 
groes and fuch a faft failing Bark 
which has been our right arm here.* 
Although I have ftrained eyery 
nerve to overtake the Robbers of 
the Negroes and Bark, as ftated 
in my laft, yet have I not been 
as fuccefsful as I wiflied. I fliall 
communicate the particulars to your 
Honors, God willing, by the Ship 
St. George, which is about to fail di- 
re6t from hence this month. If no 
remedy can be found to prevent fuch 
Robberies, and villainous crimes as 
the carrying away of the Company's 
Slaves and Bark, and no profecution 
and redrefs follow, they will not 

* See Journal and Papers in firft Part of this 


i H9 J 

only perlift therein, but even ftrike 
terror into the Spanish merchants 
who come here to trade. 

Inclofed herein goes a Minute of 
what I have provilionally judged 
neceffary, with the advice of the 
Council, to be done againft them. 
Copy thereof has been furniflied to 
Simo?i CorjieUJJe Gilde, to be ufed by 
him, according to circumftances. 
And although my zeal be hearty 
and fincere to purfue fuch Robbers, 
and as much as poffible, to repair 
and make good your Honors' lolles, 
yet have I been fcrupulous, as I did 
not wifh to do too much or too 
little. Therefore do I refpeftfully 
folicit your Honors to fupply me 
herein with fuch orders, ample 
advice and power, that I may fet 
to work and execute them unfcru- 
puloully againft limilar and fuch 
like Robbers, when occalion offers. 

( I50 ) 

fo that others may take example 
therefrom. Had we had here a 
faft failing Yacht of fourteen guns, 
manned in proportion, we might, 
without doubt, have overtaken and 
again recovered by force or with 
good right, the aforefaid Negroes 
and Bark, and it grieves us that we 
for want thereof could not carry 
out our good intentions. 

We regret exceedingly that fuch 
Rovers fhould have been the caufe 
of the ill fuccefs of the zeal we feel 
to attradl the Spanifh traders hither 
for your Honors' benefit, by previ- 
ous notices and otherwife, for the 
augmentation of Commerce and 
the fale of the Negroes which are to 
come here more and more in your 
Honors' Ships and for your account. 
What is lawfully done by Englifh 
Ships with regular orders and Com- 
miffion againfi: their Enemies, even 

( 151 ) 

the Spanifh Nation, and not againft 
us, we muft tolerate ; but when 
moft of the damage is inflided 
without lawful order and Commif- 
fion, not only on the Spanifh Nation, 
but even on ourfelves, it ought not 
to be tolerated, and fhould, by all 
ways and means, be driven from 
the Sea. 

I have witnefTed with pleafure 
your Honors' diligence in providing 
us here from time to time with 
Negroes. That will be the only 
bait to allure hither the Spanifh 
Nation, as well from the Main as 
from other parts, to carry on trade 
of any importance. But the more 
fubtly and quietly the trade to and 
on this Illand can be carried on, the 
better will it be for this place and 

( 152 ) 

Inafmuch as Mr. Gyjhert de Rofa, 
who is with me, is authorized by 
the private perfons interefted in the 
Ship Hope to apply to the Governor 
of the Havana^ by whom we under- 
fhand the Rover has been arrefted, 
and to that end have fent to me 
fuch papers, letters and proofs as 
may ferve for the recovery of faid 
Ship and cargo, neverthelefs up to 
this time have we had no opportu- 
nity to efFed; the work according 
to our good inclination, except that 
Mr. Gyjhert de Roofa has recently 
fent his Yacht, The Toung St. Pan/, 
with a cargo to St. J ago de Cuba, 
by which we wrote conjointly a 
letter to the Governor at Havanna 
to be fent to him overland from 
Cuba, to give faid Governor fome 
premonition, until a more favorable 
opportunity fhall prefent itfelf to 

( ^53 ) 

carry out your Honors' intentions 
and thofe of the private friends who 
are interefted. 

I iirft received the contract en- 
tered into by your Honors with 
Meff--^ He^or Pieterfen and Guil- 
laume Momma, by the Ships Gideon 
and Love, after the Negroes that 
had come by the Ship King Solomon 
had all been fold, and although the 
Ship Eyckenboojn has not yet arrived, 
two Spanifh Velfels with a Yacht 
from Cadiz have caft anchor in this 
port on the 2d January. They are 
come purfuant to exprefs orders to the 
Captain of the aforefaid Velfel Pedro 
Sorilho by name, for the purpofe of 
taking away thofe Negroes, accord- 
ing to contrad: ; and Skipper Ewout 
Janfen has exhibited thofe orders 
to me, and this gave me to under- 
stand, that in cafe they fhould leave 
here without Negroes, the whole 


( 15+ ) 

objedt of their Voyage would be 
thereby fruftrated, and they fhould 
in confequence fuffer exceffive dam- 
ages, I found myfelf, therefore, 
obUged to folicit as well the free- 
men as the Company's fervants, to 
loan from their Plantations to the 
Company as many Negroes as they 
could poffibly fpare, under the pro- 
mife that good flout Negroes fhould 
be returned in their ftead, out of 
the firft lot which would come for 
the Company. In this way, what 
with the Cape Verde Negroes, and 
thofe of the Company and of pri- 
vate individuals, I have colle(fled 
together with great trouble Sixty two 
head. As there were among them 
fome old and fome young, two were 
deducted for them, as appears by 
the original Receipt tranfmitted 
herewith. They have accordingly 
paid me here for Forty Jix head, as 

( 155 ) 

per contrad:, @ One hundred and 
twenty pieces of Eight, amounting 
to Five thoufand, Jive hundred and 
twenty pieces of Eight, leaving 
Fourteen head of Negroes, for which 
the aforefaid Meir''s HeBor Pieterfen 
and Guillaume Monuna are to pay 
your Honors in Holland, as is more 
fully fet forth in the receipt to 
which for brevity fake I refer. 

The aforefaid Captain, highly 
gratified and contented, failed from 
here with his two Ships on the 
15th January for Porto Bello, as he 
informed me. 

I received by the Ship Gideon, 
from Cape Verde only 'Twenty eight 
Slaves, old and young, as appears 
by the receipt delivered to the 
Skipper. In confequence of their 
condition and age, they are not 

( 156 ) 

worth fo much as the Negroes 
lately brought by the King Solomon. 
But I have lince been informed 
that if a handfome lot of Negroes 
could, when opportunity offers, be 
imported from that place, thofe 
would proportionably advance in 

What your Honors recommend 
to me in regard to Privateers, 
that they Ihall not be allowed to 
come here or hereabouts, I have 
fully communicated to our oppofite 
Neighbors,* and to the Spanifh 
Nation in other places. Few Pri- 
vateers will come into our harbor, 
becaufe they know that they are 
fufped:ed here, unlefs they come into 
port in numbers under one pretence 
or another, to fee if they cannot 
obtain fome advantage over us for 
purpofes of plunder, as the Rovers 

* That is in Venezuela and the Spanifh Main. Ed. 

( 157 ) 

have indeed threatened us. Though 
well on our guard here again ft them, 
yet muft our defence depend on 
human hands in fuch circumftances. 
The reinforcement your Honors 
have now fent in the Ship Love is 
not fufficient to oppofe a great force, 
becaufe, on the other hand, as many 
of the old Soldiers, whole time is 
expired, are going away as nearly 
balance the reinforcement juft 

With fo few men we cannot re- 
lift any evil difpofed Spaniards, if 
they ftiould have any bad delign in 
their heads, and be as ftrong as the 
two Ships which lately arrived here 
in our Harbor with full Two hun- 
dred and fifty hands. The fame 
holds good in regard to the French 
and Englifli Privateers, who here- 
tofore have vilited our Harbor, and 
we place as little confidence in the 

( 158 ) 

one as in the other. The Spaniards 
feeing that we are fo weak, can get 
up one pretext or another, efpecially 
thofe who come from Spain, who 
look on this trade with a jealous 
eye. For, fome Merchants who 
arrived in this port with the afore- 
faid two Ships, have, as I am 
informed, alleged here to one and 
another, that the Trade which we 
carry on here with the Spanifli 
Nation on the Coaft or elfewhere, 
would not be permitted in Spaiuy 
and fuch a prohibition would be 
ilTued that no Spaniard belonging 
to any place would dare to come 
hither for the purpofe of trade. 
On the other hand, I have under- 
ftood from the Captain himfelf, 
that they are confident the Trade 
here will flourifh more and more, 
and he hoped that his Ship, the 
St. Catharine, would return here 

( 159 ) 

in four months with Three to Four 
t houf and ^iQC&s of Eight to purchafe 
Negroes and Merchandize. This 
was confirmed to me by the Dutch 
Skipper Ewout Janfen, in cafe they 
arrive fafe at Porto Bello. The 
Spanifh Frigates which have been 
previoufly here, and trade to New 
Spain, have aHb told me the fame 
thing, and faid that they came 
yearly from New Spain up to Ca- 
raccas, with confiderable calh to 
trade there for Cocoa and Mer- 
chandize, and that they then would 
feek a pretext to touch, on their 
way from Caraccas, here to pur- 
chafe Negroes and ftock goods. 


( i6o 

Receipt of Pedro Diez Trox- 
xiu.A for Slaves. 

J acknowledge to have received 
from the Hon^'e Mathias Beck, 
Governor over the Curasao Iflands, 
Sixty two Slaves, old and young, in 
fulfillment and performance of the 
Contract concluded on the 26^^ 
June, Ao 1659, by MeffJ-s HeBor 
Pieters and Guilliamme Mom?na, 
with the Lords Diredors at the 
Chamber at Amjierdam ; and as the 
Negroes by the Ship King Solomon, 
were difpofed of, long before the 
arrival of the underligned, and the 
Ship Eyckenboo?n, mentioned in the 
aforefaid Contract, has not arrived 
at this date, the faid Governor 
has furnifhed me, the undexiigned, 
with the abovementioned Sixty two 

( i6i ) 

Slaves, and on account of the old 
and young which are among the 
aforefaid Negroes, has allowed a 
deduction of two Negroes, {o that 
there remain Sixty head in the 
clear, for which I, the underligned, 
have here according to Contrad:, 
paid to the Governor aforefaid for 
Forty fix head, (a One hundred and 
twenty pieces of Eight, amounting 
to Five thoufand, jive hundred and 
twenty pieces of Eight. Whereas, 
Fourteen Negroes remain ftill to be 
paid for, according to Contrad: in 
Hollajid by Meff"-^ HeBor Pieters 
and Guillanie Monwia in A?ujierdam, 
to MelT''^ the Diredlors aforefaid, on 
prefentation of this my receipt, to 
which end three of the fame tenor 
are executed and ligned in the 
prefence of two underligned truft- 
worthy witnetfes, whereof the one 
being fatisfied the others are to be 


( i62 ) 

void. Curasao in Fort Amjierdam, 
the ii^h January, A° 1660. It 
being underftood that the above 
Fourteen Negroes, to be paid for in 
Amjierda?n, {hall not be charged 
higher than according to Contract 
@ Two hundred and eighty Guilders 
each, amounting together to Three 
thoufand, nine hundred and twenty 
Carolus Guilders. Dated as above. 

Pedro Diez Troxxilla, 

Ev^ouT Jansen. 


NicoLAEs Haeck, 


( i63 ) 

DireSior Stuyvesant to Vice 
DireBor Beck. 

Amfierdam in New Netherlands 
I J February, 1660. 

^> t^ ^ ^ >fC 

FOUR Negro Boys and one Ne- 
gro Girl have, as you advifed, 
been fent to, and received by me ^ 
the Ship Sphera Mundi ; 3 on mine 
and 2 on Commillary Fan Brugge's 
account, their price being left to 
our difcretion. Upon this fubjed: 
I muft fay, that the affignment 
fent to me by Frans Bruyn is un- 
ligned. However, in order to avoid 
any difficulty, I left this time the 
choice to the Commiffary who took 
the Negro Girl and one of the 
ftouteft Boys. But greater diffi- 
culties have arifen in this wife: 

( "6+ ) 

One of the Five died on the palTage 
hither ; fome were fick or have 
become fo after arriving. To pre- 
vent any mifunderftanding in future, 
the fold Negroes ought to be con- 
ligned to the purchafer by their 
names or marks. 

As regards the price which was 
left to our difcretion, in order to 
prevent any fufpicion of felf inte- 
reftednefs, I wifh your Honor to 
inform me after the others have 
been fold, what price they brought. 

I have obferved by your defpatch 
to the Hon^i^ Directors, dated 3 
Septe?nber, forwarded by the Ship 
Sphera Mundi the 26 December 
laft, that the Negroes were fold to 
M"" Corn' van Ool @ 140 pieces of 
Eight, viz., from 40 to 16 years; 
from 16 to 12 years, three for two ; 
under 1 2 years, two for one. 

We hope and truft that by com- 

( i65 ) 

plying with fuch price and terms, 
we (hall avoid all fufpicion of felf 
intereft. I am willing to take my 
fliare of the expence and rifk of their 
palTage hither, becaufe I defired 
the Negroes foi^ my own fervice 
and the promotion of Agriculture, 
not in the expediation of any gain, 
and therefore fent for young ones, 
in which regard the worthy In- 
habitants, Chriftians, and thofe of 
the Hon^'^ Company, ought, I 
think, to be preferred before Span- 
iards and unbelieving Jews. 

You will fee by the enclofed 
extradis from my letter covering 
yours to the Hon^^^ Directors, what 
I have propofed to them. It is 
therefore delirable and fomewhat 
necellary that a fixed price fhould 
be fet on Horfes conveyed hither, 
or ordered from Curasao, by private 
perfons, as well as on Negroes as 

( i66 ) 

far as pradlicable, according to their 
ability and age, becaufe the one as 
well as the other are moft urgently 
required here for purpofes of Agri- 
culture and its advancement, and 
finally would ten^ to the greater 
advantage, trade and profperity of 
the Hon^^^ Company and its fub- 

In regard to the Negroes which 
the Hon'^'^ Directors ordered to be 
fent hither, they ought to be flout 
and ftrong fellows, fit for immedi- 
ate employment on this Fortrefs and 
other works ; alfo, if required, in 
war againfi: the Wild Barbarians, 
either to purfue them when retreat- 
ing, or elfe to carry fome of the 
Soldiers' baggage ; it being very 
apparent that we fhall be con- 
strained to wage a righteous and 
offenfive War againfl them, for the 

( '67 ) 

peaceable pofleffion once of the 
Land, and the avenging of numer- 
ous fuffered affronts and murders. 
An important fervice would be 
conferred on the Company, on us 
and the Country if there were 
among the fold Negroes, fome of 
experience who had reiided a cer- 
tain time at Curacao. 

Dire&ors at Amjlerda^n to 
DireBor Stuyvesant. 

Amjierdam, the ()th March^ 1660. 

NOW as regards the trade in 
Slaves, or Negroes, which the 
Inhabitants there at Curasao might 
purfue, that is permitted to them 
as to other Merchants, with the 
underftanding, however, that it is 

( i68 ) 

not to be at a lower price, for the 
reafon that the Company here 
would thereby be ferioufly preju- 
diced. But as Agriculture there 
would be beneficially promoted 
by Negroes, and the advancement 
thereof is of great importance, 
and the profperity of that State 
is, for the moft part, dependent 
thereon, we have, therefore, con- 
cluded and even refolved to try 
an experiment with a parcel of 
Negroes which we (hall have con- 
veyed to your Honor by the firft 
opportunity which a Ship or Ships 
may offer from Curasao. Thefe 
Negroes fhall then be publicly fold 
to the higheft bidder there, on 
the exprefs Condition, neverthelefs, 
that they (hall not be removed 
thence, but be employed in culti- 
vating the Land. To this end, an 
exad: regifter fhall be made and 

( i69 ) 

kept, as your Honor will fee by 
the accompanying form of the 
aforefaid Conditions. 

Propofed ContraEi to import 
Slaves into New Netherla7id, 

THIS day, the underfigned Di- 
rector and Council of New 
Netherlands thereunto authorized 
by Refolution of the Chamber at 
Amjierdam, on the one part, and 
the Owners of the Ship 
whereof is Skipper, burthen 

about Tons, on the other 

part, have agreed and contracted 
that a Permit and Commiffion in 
due form fliall be granted to the 
aforefaid Skipper, to buy Slaves, 
and further to profecute fuch ad- 
vantage as faid Owners (hall deem 

( lyo ) 

expedient on the Coaft of Africa ; 
in like manner to return here to 
the Manhattans with the faid Slaves 
and their further cargo, provided 
neverthelefs that they fhall not be 
at liberty, in regard to the Coaft of 
Africa^ to refort on the granted 
Permit to the Gold Coaji, and there- 
fore not to go Wefterly further 
than Ardre or at mo ft to PopOy on 
pain of the lofs of the Ship and 
Goods laden therein, to which end 
the Dire6lors and Council fhall be 
at liberty to place a Supercargo on 
board faid Ship, (whom the Skipper 
iliall be bound to entertain in the 
Cabin,) and if necelTary to caufe 
the People therein to be fworn ; for 
which aforefaid Permit and Com- 
miffion the aforefaid Owners pro- 
mife, on the return of the faid 
Ship and before her difcharge, 
promptly to pay to the Diredor 

( '71 ) 

and Council aforefaid, or their 
deputies, a duty of Fifteen Guilders 
for each Negro, without making 
any exception or objedion thereto. 
Under bond of their perfons and 
Goods, none excepted, with renun- 
ciation of benefit ordiiiis divijtonis 
et excujjionis, having entire know- 
ledge thereof. Done New Anijier- 
dam this 

Remonjlrance on the preceding 
propofed ContraEi. 

Honorable, Wife, Prudent Lords, 
Petrus Stuyvefant^ Governor Ge- 
neral, and the Councillors o^ New 
Netherlands Curasao and Depen- 
dencies thereof. 


THE Underfigned Burghers and 
Inhabitants of this City New 
Atnjierdam^ your Honors' liege Sub- 

( 172 ) 

jed:s, moft refpecStfully reprefent 
that they are inclined to a foreign 
Trade, and efpecially to the Coaft 
of Africa, according to the Con- 
ceffion of the Hon'^^^ Directors 
granted in the year 1652, as a 
fpecial privilege to the Inhabitants 
of this Place, in order to fetch 
thence Slaves and other Wares 
might be difpofed of here and 
elfewhere, whereby this City and 
the entire Country would increafe 
and profper in Merchandize, Com- 
merce, Population and more efpe- 
cially in the Tobacco Trade, to 
the advantage not only of thefe 
Inhabitants, but alfo of the Hon^le 
Weft India Company which would 
behold, in time, a vaft, populous, and 
rich commercial Province fpring 
up in thefe parts therefrom. 

But it has appeared to them that 
thofe who would execute with 

( 173 ) 

Skipper or Merchant going to that 
Country a Draft of Partnerfhip, 
which is befet and pinched by fuch 
precife Conditions, would rilk their 
lives and Goods, and at beft gain 
nothing, or run the rifk of having 
Ship and Goods confifcated. For, 
belides the entire of the Gold Coajl 
being excepted in that Conceffion, 
it appears that Cape Verde, Siera 
Leona^ the Greyn (Pepper) and ^a 
^a Coafi; are alfo excluded ; for 
it is not permitted to refort further 
Weft, at fartheft, than Popo Sonde. 
Moreover, the Gold Coaji which 
from Cape Apolonia to Cape des 
Rodes or Mount Berique is reckoned 
60 leagues, can be extended much 
further, as will be feen, to any place 
where Gold may be found. And 
as regards Slaves ; for each head 1 5 
Guilders muft be paid, and then 
the payment for them in Tobacco 
or Beaver, is again taxed when 

( 17+ ) 

fhipped to Fatherland, which 
impofes too heavy a burthen on 
this hazardous Trade. 

The Hon^'^ Company, in the 
meanwhile, mull perceive that our 
Neighbors the French, EnglilL, 
Swedes, Danes and Courlanders, 
are by means of the Netherland- 
ers who repair to them, trading 
along the entire Coaft, even un- 
der their ftrongholds, without any 
profit being derived therefrom by 
the Company ; Yea, they fuffer 
rather very ferious lofs thereby, as 
is manifeft from the example of 
Arent de Groot who in the Year 
1638, built a Fort at Cor?nantyn for 
the Englilh, and of Hendrick Caer- 
loff, the former Fifcal, who built 
another at Cape Corfe in the Year 
1650, for the Swedes. 

Your Honors' fubjed:s paffing 
by thefe ftrongholds, take another 
courfe and as faithful fubjedts, ad- 


( 175 ) 

drefs themfelves to you, humbly 
praying permiffion to trade free 
and unobftrudted in Ship or Ships, 
along the whole of the Weft Coaft 
of Africa, that is, from Cape Verd 
to Cape Lopes de Gonfahe, in all 
Bays, Rivers and Coafts, without 
any exception, the Hon^^^ Com- 
pany's ftrongholds alone excepted, 
according to the Rules and Orders, 
on payment, either here or in Hol- 
land, of fuch moderate duty as (liall 
be agreed on. This doing, &c. 

Cornelius Steenwyck, 

Marten Kregier, 

Themotheus Gabrie, 

Oloff Stevensen, 

govert loocquermans, 

Jacob Strycker. 

P. L. Vande Grift, 


Hendrick Jansen Vander Vier, 
Peter Couwenhoven, 
Jacob Steendam, 
Johannes Verveelen. 

( 176 ) 

The preceding Petition being 
read and conlidered, the following 
Apoftil was annexed thereto : 

The Director General and Coun- 
cil confider themfelves unqualified, 
without the previous knowledge 
and approbation of their Supe- 
riors, the Lords Directors of the 
Incorporated Weft India Company, 
Chamber at Amjlerdam, to grant 
any further enlargement than the 
Ad: herein mentioned implies. The 
Petitioners, therefore, muft make 
application on the fubje6l to that 
Board. Done Fort Amjhrdam in 
New 'Netherlands 3d May, 1660. 

Bill of Lading of Negroes, 

> fen Eyckenboom, Skipper under 
God of my Ship called the Eyck- 

( 177 ) 

en boom, lying at prefent in the 
Harbor of the Illand of Curasao, 
ready to fail for New Netherlands 
hereby acknowledge to have re- 
ceived in my Ship aforefaid from 
the Honble Vice Director Matthias 
Beck for account of the Hon^'''^ 
Company, Twenty head of Sound 
Slaves or Male Negroes, whom I 
undertake and promife to deliver 
after the profperous and fafe arrival 
of my Ship in New Netherlands 
unto the Hon'^'^ Director General 
and Council there, firft acknow- 
ledging to have executed triplicate 
Receipts therefor, one of which 
being fatisfied, the others fliall be 
void. Curasao in Fort AmJlerda?H, 
the 8 May, A° 1660. 

Jan Janse Eyckenboom. 

( 178 ) 

DireEior Stuyvesant to the 
DireBors at Afnfterdafn, 

Amjierdam in New Netherlands | 
25 June^ 1660. I 

WE are this inftant informed by 
a Fifherman, that the Galiot 
New Amjlel is in fight with another 
flute with Horfes and Negroes 
from Curasao. We iliall commu- 
nicate to your Honors by the firft 
opportunity, perhaps the Ship Faith, 
what intelligence we receive from 
there, and in the mean time will 
execute your orders as to the fale 
of the Negroes. 

The Flute already mentioned, 
which arrived here from Curasao 
with the Galiot is named the Eyck- 

( 179 ) 

enboofiiy and was difpatched i6 or 17 
months ago in the fervice and pay 
of the Company to Guinea, and 
thence with Negroes to Curasao. 
■?^ :^ -^ -^ ^ 

Nineteen Negroes arrived here in 
the fame Velfel ; the twentieth died 
on the Voyage. The remainder 
are in tolerable health. 

DireSior Stuyvesant to Vice 

DireEior Beck. 

Amjierdam in New Netherlands 
5 July, 1660. 

IN refped: to the T'hree Negro 
Boys received by the Ship Sphera 
Mundi, they will be accepted on 
the fame terms as thofe fo told 
Van Olen. You will pleafe to enter 
them on our account there, and 

( i8o ) 

offfet them againft what has been 
heretofore delivered out of our 
coreal to the ftore there. 

Nineteen of the 20 head of Ne- 
groes which your Honor fent on the 
Company's account, have arrived 
in tolerable condition and health. 

*X* ^f^ ^X' ^ ^ 

It has pleafed the Hon^^e Com- 
pany, on our propofal tranfmitted 
by the Ship Sphera Mundi, in regard 
to the trade in Negroes and the 
equalization of duties between the 
two Conquefts, to write, on the 
firft, in order to make no alteration 
to the Company's prejudice in the 
Negro trade at Curasao, that they 
had refolved for the promotion of 
Agriculture, to fend thence hither 
a good number of Negroes, to be 
fold to the Inhabitants, on condition 
that they fliall not be tranfported 
elfewhere, believing that, by this 


method, the Hon^'e Company will 
fuffer lefs lofs and the People reap 
greater benefit. The effed; hereof 
we fhall leave to time. 

Bill of Lading of Negroes. 

5 Janfen from Oldenkirch, Skip- 
per under God of my Ship named 
the New Netherland Indian, at pre- 
fent lying in the Harbor of the 
Illand of Curasao, ready to fail to 
New Netherland, hereby acknow- 
ledge to have received from the 
Hon^le Vice Director Matthias Beck, 
for account of the Hon*^^^ Com- 
pany, l^en head of Sound Slaves or 
Male Negroes, whom I undertake 
and promife to deliver, after my 
fafe arrival with my Ship in New 
Netherland, to the Hon'^'^ Dire6lor 

( l82 ) 

General and Council there, firft 
figning three Receipts of the fame 
tenor, of which when one is fatis- 
fied the others are void. Curasao, 
in Fort Amfterdam, the 31ft Auguji, 
A" 1660. 

DiERCK Jans. 

1 66 1. July 21. A fimilar Bill of 
Lading for 40 Slaves, confiding of 
15 Men, 14 Women, 6 Boys and 
5 Girls, to be delivered in New 

Permit to export a crazy Ne- 
gro to Virginia. 

THE Petition oi Samuel Edfal, 
fetting forth that one of the 
Negroes purchafed by him on the 
8th of Odober laft at public Auc- 
tion from the Director General 


( i83 ) 

and Council is unfit to perform 
any fort of work, as he is fome- 
times not in his right mind, and 
requeuing permiffion to fend him 
to Virginia, being read and con- 
fidered, it is Apoftilled — 

The Petition is granted on con- 
dition that the Petitioner, when 
opportunity offers, fhall import or 
caufe to be imported into the 
Country another in ftead thereof. 
Done 20th January, 1661. 

DireEiors at Amjhrdam to 
DireElor Stuyvesant. 

Amjierdam, 1 1 /// April, 1 66 1 . 

Honorable, Prudent, Valiant, Be- 
loved, Faithful. 

THE bearer hereof has fafely 
handed us your Letter of the 
9th ultimo, which came by way 

( i«4 ) 

of New and Old England. The 
NecefTaries required therein, not 
already fent, fhall be forwarded to 
you in the Veffels now lying ready 
to fail direct thither. 

This goes by way of Curasao. 
And as we have obferved by the 
enclofures thereof, that the greater 
portion of the Slaves conveyed 
thither by the Eyckenboo?n and New 
Netherland Indian^ have been fold 
at a fair price, we have written to 
Vice Direcftor Beck at Curasao 
herewith, and ordered him to pro- 
vide you with a frefh fupply by 
every opportunity. We have done 
this the rather, becaufe we have 
refolved not only that Slaves fhall 
be kept in New Netherland, as we 
have heretofore ordered, but be 
moreover exported to the Englifh 
and other Neighbors. This, how- 
ever, on condition that on fuch 

( >85 ) 

occafion there Ihall be paid, on 
each exported Negro, a duty of 
Two Beavers, which is a fmall and 
light impoft. 

The reafons which have led us 
to the adoption of fuch Refolution, 
are, among others none of the 
fmalleft, the promotion both of 
Agriculture and Trade in thofe 
Parts, as herefrom a greater fre- 
quentation of the water communi- 
cation betwen New Netherland and 
Curai^ao^ muft necelTarily follow, 
and tend accordingly to their prof- 
perity. Thus the one will be 
fupplied and provided with necef- 
faries by the other, which is a 
matter of great conlideration in 
regard to foreign Poireffions. 

As your Honor obferves, our zeal 
and care for the welfare of New 
Netherlands fo muft you endeavor 
to retain us therein and confequently 


( i86 ) 

not fail to fend us, from time to 
time, fuch returns as may accrue 
there from the fale of the Slaves, 
in which cafe we fhall not negle6t 
to have your Honor fupplied with 
others by every opportunity. 

Honorable, Prudent, Valiant, Be- 
loved, Faithful, commending you 
to God's protection we remain. 
The Dirediors of the Weft India 
Company, at the Chamber of 


Edward Man. 



( 187 ) 

DireBor Stuyvesant to Vice 
DireEior Beck. 

Honorable, Wife, Prudent, right 
Difcreet Sir. 

YOUR welcome Letter of the 
31ft of Auguft of laif Year, 
was handed to us in due courfe by 
the Bearer, in which is iirft men- 
tioned the unfortunate lofs for the 
Company on the Horfes fent hither 
in the Ship Ryckenboo?n and Galiot 
New Amjlel. You Honor will learn 
from the annexed return of the 
public fale, what they brought here 
in confequence of their emaciated 
appearance after having been re- 
freilied during two or three months. 
We have had better luck with 
the few Slaves fent hither at the 
fame time. They were fold to the 
higheft bidder, chiefly at Beaver's 

( i88 ) 

value, which differs little from 
Silver pay. I have retained fome 
of the beft for the Company. One 
with another they brought about 
ji. 440* a head, lefs the freight. 

On this point, we muft not neg- 
lect to recommend, in cafe Negroes 
are hereafter fent in one and the 
fame Velfel, fome on the Compa- 
ny's, and others on private account, 
as happened in the Ship Indian, 
that on fuch occafions, the Negroes 
fent for account of the Company, 
or Individuals, may be diftinguifhed 
the one from the other by fome 
particular marks or tokens, either 
by a ftripe on the clothing or 
otherwife, in order to prevent dif- 
putes and differences here, which 
we might eafily have had here with 
the Owners of the Ship Indian if 
any had fallen fick or died on the 

* Equal to $176. 

palTage, iince they claimed to be 
entitled to the firft choice, leaving 
the reft for the Company. This 
choice I alfo have allowed them, as 
there were no certain marks to 
guide us. * * * * 

Amjierdajn in New Netherlands 
I ()th April, A° 1661. 

(By the New Nether land Indian.) 

Refolution of the Dire&or and 

Council of New Nether land, 

Friday, 2d September, 1 66 1 . 

In Council. Prefent — 

The Honorable Director General 

Petrus Stuyvefanf, 
Hon. Nicafius de Silk, 
yoha?i de Decker. 

WHEREAS, the Yacht New 
Nether land Indian arrived here 
yefterday from Curasao, by which 

( I90 ) 

I have received on the Company's 
Account 36 out of 40 head of 
Negroes and Negrelfes, both young 
and old, that had been fhipped in 
that VelTel, it is refolved in order 
to prevent expence and lofs by death 
or otherwife, to fell them publicly 
on Tuefday next to the higheft 
bidder, and to announce the fame 
immediately every where by No- 

It being taken into confideration 
in regard to the above fubjed:, what 
pay the above Negroes fhould be 
fold for, it is by a majority of Votes 
refolved, to fell them for Beaver 
or Provifions, fuch as Beef, Pork, 
Wheat or Peafe, at Beaver price ; 
for if they are to be fold for Beaver 
or Cafli down, or Tobacco at Beaver 
price, neither Burgher nor Farmer 
can purchafe any, lince there is no 
Tobacco, much lefs Beaver in cir- 

( 191 ) 

culation among the People. By 
this means, a few perfons only, to 
whom the Company is indebted, 
would have an opportunity to 
monopolize them in diminution of 
the debt, and that at a fmall price, 
becaufe, as already ftated, fuch only 
will be for their intereft, whereby 
then, the Company will be fruftrated 
out of the Beaver or Tobacco down, 
and we, alfo, fliall be obliged to 
purchafe a quantity of Provifions 
for the Garrifon againft the coming 
Winter, and in payment thereof 
take up Goods from the Merchants 
at the higheft price, and next year 
again lofe thereby the greateft por- 
tion of the Beaver. Therefore, 
for thefe and many other reafons it 
has been thought befl: to fell the 
aforefaid Negroes for Beaver or 
Provifions at Beaver price. 

( 192 J 

DireBor Stuyvesant to the 
DireEiors at A^njlerdam, 

Fort Atnjterdam in New Nether- \ 
land, 3 1 ft OStober, 1661. J 

Honorable, &c. 

AS nothing of confequence has 
tranfpired fince the departure 
of the Faith and Gilded Eagle, by 
which the condition of affairs had 
been explained at large, and nothing 
of any importance has fince oc- 
curred, this Letter is principally 
intended to accompany Invoices, 
Muffer Rolls of the Garrifon, and 
a few neceffary Documents. 

:^ * * * * 

Nos. 6 and 7 are two Lifts, one 
of a lot of old, and the other of a 
lot of young, male and female Ne- 
groes, fent hither by Vice Director 

I '93 j 

Beck in the Ship Ne%u Netherland 
Itidiati. Annexed thereto is a return 
of the conditions and prices at which 
they were fold here. 

Refolutio7t of the DireBor a?2d 
Coimcil of New Netherlajid. 

Monday, jth November, 1 66 1 . 

In Council. Prefent — 

Director General Petriis Stuyve- 

Honbis Nicafius de Sille, 
'Johan de Decker. 

RESOLVED, to fell four more 
of the 7 Negroes, held over 
laft year, to the higheft bidder at 
public auftion on the following 
Conditions : 

The Buyers fhall be empowered 
to ufe the purchafed Negroes as 

( J9+ J 

Bond Slaves, alfo to refell them to 
others either within or beyond this 
Province, provided that whomfoever 
will remove or tranfport them be- 
yond this Province, fhall pay for 
each Negro a duty of Two Beavers. 

Payment fliall be made down at 
lateft within fix weeks from date 
hereof in Wheat or Rye. 

The Wheat at 3 Guilders, and 
the Rye at 2I Gl. the Skepel. 

The Negroes fhall be delivered 
to the Purchafers at the time of 
payment and not before. 

The Purchafers iliall be bound to 
give fufficient fecurity. 

ContraEl for a Cargo of Slaves 
for New Netherland. 

THIS day the MelT'^s 

Abraham Wilmerdonx and 
Jacob Pergens, both Direcflors of 

( ^95 ) 

the Weft India Company at the 
Chamber here, being fpecially au- 
thorized thereto by their Allociates, 
on the one part, and Hejidrick 
Roeters, old fchepen, yohan Tayfpil 
and Anthony Cajieleyn, Commiffaries 
and Dire6tors of this City's Colonie 
in New Netherlands by their AlTo- 
ciates thereunto fpecially delegated, 
on the other part, agree and contract, 
that the abovenamed Directors in- 
tending to purchafe a parcel of 
Slaves at Angola, and to convey them 
to New Netherlands (hall admit 
the aforefaid Commiffioners and 
Directors to participate with them 
in the cofts and rifk of the Trade of 
the aforefaid Slaves, for one fourth, 
in all refpedts the fame as the 
Company, and that accordingly the 
abovenamed Directors and Com- 
miffioners ihall alfo pay their portion 
in the moneys which are advanced 

( '96 ) 

to the Skipper of the Gideon, and 
the aforefaid Directors (of the Weft 
India Company) ftiall with all pof- 
lible fpeed difpatch the Ship Gideon, 
chartered for that purpofe by their 
Honors, according to the Charter 
Party, and let it purfue its Voyage 
accordingly ; that the abovenamed 
Directors fliall have the exclulive 
management of the aforefaid Trade 
and raife on bottomry the moneys 
required therefor, in the manner 
ufual with the Company, and after 
the Voyage is completed, account 
for and fettle with the abovenamed 
Dirediors and Commilfaries for 
every thing ; and that the aforefaid 
Commiffioners fhall give orders that 
their Officers, being notified of the 
arrival of the aforefaid Slaves at the 
Manhattans, fhall repair thither to 
receive the aforefaid fourth of the 
faid Negroes by blind lot, and give 

i 197 j 

receipt therefor ; that, further, the 
aforefaid Commiffioners, as foon as 
the receipt fliall be produced here, 
fhall pay to the Company Ten 
Carokis Guilders, over and above 
their (hare as above in the Trade, 
after deUvery for each merchantable 
Slave from 15 to 36 years, being 
reckoned head for head as mer- 
chantable, and above 36 and from 
15 to 8 years downwards, three for 
two, and from 8 years down, 2 for 
one, fucklings following the mother. 
All under exprefs condition, that the 
abovenamed Direftors and Com- 
miffioners mull: retain the aforefaid 
Slaves in their Colonie without 
allowing them to be fold to any 
other Nation outfide the Colonie, 
or fuffering them to be either di- 
redly or indiredly removed or fold 
elfewhere. All upon the penalty 
of 300 Florins for each Slave who 

( i9« ) 

iliall be removed, or fuch higher 
penalty as is provided or may here- 
after be provided in the Ordinances 
already enad:ed, or that (liall here- 
after be enadted therefor in New 

DireElors at Ainflerdain to 
DireBor Stuyvesant. 
Amfterda}?!^ lothyanuary, 1664. 

IN our laft which we enclofe, you 
were informed that we con- 
tra6ted with Symon Gilde, Skipper 
of the Ship Gideon^ to export a 
goodly number of Slaves from Lo- 
ango on the Coaft of Africa, and 
to convey them by way of Curasao 
to New Netherland ; alfo that this 
City is a partner therein for one 
fourth part, as may be more fully 

( 199 J 

feen by the Copies hereunto an- 

As the Slaves are intended folely 
to promote Agriculture, which is 
the only means of making the 
State profperous, lb is it our exprefs 
order, that the aforefaid Slaves Ihall 
be fold there only to our Inhabitants 
on the exprefs condition, that they 
fliall not be exported out of our dif- 
trid:, but fpecially retained therein, 
to be employed in the cultivation 
of the foil, fo that the great expenfe 
which we have incurred may not 
be fruitlefs, but that we may, in due 
courfe of time, reap the fruits which 
we promife ourfelves therefrom. 
The aforefaid Ship with about 300 
Slaves may, according to our calcu- 
lation, arrive yonder in the month 
of June or July next. 

As your Honor will be greatly 
relieved by this fupply, you will 

( 200 j 

therefore ufe every effort that one 
third part at leafl: of the proceeds 
fliall be forwarded hither in Beaver, 
in order that we may be enabled to 
pay the freight, or the greateft part 
thereof at fartheft, on the arrival 
of the aforefaid Ship here, which 
we are bound to do by contract. 
Otherwife, we fliall lofe all ambi- 
tion to continue fuch tranfmiffion 
of Slaves. This we commend to 
your Honor's fpecial conlideration. 

DireSlor Stuyvesant to Vice 

DireBor Beck. 

Ainjierdam in New Netherland, \ 
7 May, 1664. I 

^ ^ ^fC ?ji ;^ 

MESS''^ the Directors, and the 
Commiffioners of the Colo- 
nic on the South River, have entered 

( 20I ) 

into a contrad; with Simon Cornelijfen 
Gilde, Skipper of the Gideon, to 
tranfport hither a lot of Negroes 
for Agricultural purpofes. Thefe 
Negroes will, we hope, have ar- 
rived before this Letter reaches your 
Honor, or, at leaft, be embarked 
after its receipt. We Ihall therefore 
recommend that, being properly 
provided, they may be difpatched 
hither as fpeedily as poffible. If it 
happen that Simon Gilde fliould 
arrive with the Negroes at the liland 
of Curasao a month later than the 
Charter Party provides, fay, the 
middle of Augult, the firft inftal- 
ment might reach here before or 
by the middle of September from 
Curasao, and the remainder by the 
middle of October. In that event 
a fair price might be realized for 


( 202 ) 

Conditions and T'er7ns on which 
the DireElor General and 
Council of New Netherland 
propofe to fell to the highefl 
bidder a lot of Negroes and 
Negrejfes. 29 May^ 1664.. 

THE Buyers fhall immediately 
take poffeffion of their pur- 
chafed Negroes, and may ufe them 
as Bond Slaves, and alfo fell them 
to others. 

But whereas, the meaning of the 
Directors is, to promote and advance 
the Population and Agriculture of 
this Province more and more, the 
purchafed Negroes or Negrelfes 
Ihall not be fold, carried away or 
tranfported beyond this Province. 
Whofo ads contrary hereunto, fhall 

( 203 ) 

forfeit for each Negro or Negrefs, 
One hundred Guilders, Beaver value. 
Payment fliall be made, one fourth 
part down, the remainder in Sep- 
te?nber or OBober next, in good 
Beaver at Eight Guilders the Skin, 
or in Merchandize, Beaver price, or 
in Provilions fuch as the Hon^^^ 
Company may require, to be de- 
livered here at the Manhattans at 
the following prices : 

Wheat at 55 Stivers, ] 

Peafe at 50 Stivers, I the Skepel. 

Rye at 45 Stivers, J 

Salted Beef at 4 Stivers, I , p , 
Pork at 5 Stivers, J 

The Purchafer fhall be bound to 
give fufficient fecurity. 


( 204 j 

On the foregoing Conditions, the 
following were the Purchafers : 

Jacobus Backer^ - I Negro, for 555 
I Negrefs, 305 
I Negro, 315 

-— 1 175 
Dome Johannes Theodorus Polhemius^ 
on Colonifts' Account, one Negro 
for - - - - - - 440 

Nicolas Verleth^ on Colonifts' Account, 
I Negrefs, for fi. 290 
I Negro, _ 395 

I Negrefs and Child, 360 
I Negrefs, 260 


Johannes Verveelen^ - I Negro, 445 
Paulus Leendertfen Vande Griji^ 

I Negro, 425 

Capt. Thoynas Willet^ - I Negro, 502 

Timotheus Gahry^ - - i Negro, 485 

Mt" John Laurence^ - I Negro, 345 

Jerominus Ehhingh^ - i Negro, 485 

Jfaacq Foreeji^ - - I Negro, 545 

Jacob Leyfeler^ - - I Negro, 615 

Nicolas De Meyer., - i Negro, 460 

Daniel Terneur^ - - I Negro, 465 

Ifaac Bedlo, - - i Negro, 430 

( 205 ) 

'Jacques Coujfeaa^ - i Negrefs, 335 
I ditto, 305 

I ditto. 



TVilliam Maerfchalck^ I Negro, 500 
I ditto, 425 


Govert Loocquermans^ - I Negro, 305 
Egbert Myndertfen^ - I Negro, 562 

Adriaen Vincent^ - i Negrefs, 255 

Carel van Brugge^ - i Negrefs, 300 

I Negro, 600 


Total Florins, 12009 

DireElor Stuyvesant to the 

DireBors at A^njlerdam. 

^ i$ -^ -^ -^ 

THIS day fortnight arrived here 
your Honors' Veflel, the Spar- 
row, with Forty head of Slaves, fent 
to us by Vice Director Beck to 
procure Provifions and all forts of 

( 206 ) 

Timber work, fix Ox Carts and a 
new Rofmill. * * * 

The Negroes and Negrefi^es have 
all arrived fafely and in health, but 
were, on an average, pretty old, and 
as the Skipper alleges, rejected by 
the Spaniards. The product of the 
greater part appears by the ac- 
companying account of the public 
Vendue. They would have brought 
more, had they not been fo old. 
Fwe of the Negro Women, who 
were, in our opinion, unfaleable, 
have been kept back and remain 
unfold. In like manner. Six Ne- 
groes alfo, to help to cut the required 
Timber and to perform fome other 
necefiary work for the Honorable 

ID June^ 1664. 

207 ) 

DireBors at Amjlerda7n to 
Dire&or Stuyvesant. 

A??iJIerdam^ 24 Jime, 1664. 

Honorable, Prudent, Valiant, Be- 
loved, Faithful. 

WE have heretofore advifed you 
of our intention to let the 
Ship Gideon go from Curasao to 
the Manhattans with her Slaves. 
Having fince then, and now for the 
firft time, remarked the hoftile and 
treacherous deligns manifefted by 
the Englifh towards the Company's 
rightful Conquefts on the Coaft of 
Africa^ where they have already 
maftered Cape Verd and taken 3 @ 
4 of the Company's Ships or Yachts, 
we have come to a different deter- 
mination. As your Honor alfo will 

( 208 ) 

not be left unmolefted by them, for 
we underftand that they have like- 
wife fent 3 Ships with Men thither 
to the affiftance of their Nation, 
and as the aforefaid Ship with Slaves 
might hereby be brought into dif- 
ficulty, we have thought proper to 
fend her firft to the South River^ to 
learn there from the City's Director 
how matters ftand at the Manhat- 
tans. On learning the arrival of 
this Ship there, your Honor muft 
immediately commiffion fome one 
to go thither, to be prefent at the 
allotment of the Negroes, and to 
repair to the Manhattans with the 
fhare, or ith the part that is to fall 
to the Company ; with this un- 
derftanding, however, that if the 
abovenamed Ship had not brought 
thither above 200 head, there fliall 
be left to the City at leaft 60 head, 
as we find ourfelves under obliga- 

( 209 ) 

tion to accommodate them with 
that number. 
Honorable, Prudent, Valiant, Be- 
loved, Faithful, 
Commending you to God's merciful 
Protediion, we Remain, 
Your Good Friends, 
The Diredors of the Incorporated 
Weft India Company, Chamber 
at Amjhrdmn, 

j. bontemantel, 
David van Baerle. 



( 2IO ) 

Vice Dire 81 or Beck to the 
DireElors and Council of 
New N etherland. 

Curasao in Fort A?)ijierdam, \ 
the 21. y^z/K, Ano 1664. J 

Honorable, Valiant, Wife, Prudent 
and right Difcreet Gentlemen. 

MY lafi: to your Honors was 
dated 28 April, by the Com- 
pany's Ship Mufch, which I not 
only hope has arrived in your parts 
long before your receipt of this, 
but ardently defire to fee her return 
here every day. 

Since then a handfome Genoefe 
(genuees) Ship, named the Sta Cruz, 
arrived here from Cartagena, with 
One hundred 2in6Jixty tfooufandyi^Q^^ 
of Eight in Specie, to be all invefted 

( 211 ) 

in Slaves through the Factors re- 
liding here on behalf of the Genoefe 
Company, who, however up to this 
time have delayed doing any thing, 
by advice and order of their Prin- 
cipals, in the expectation that they 
will have concluded a new Contract 
with the Company, and that more 
Slaves may arrive here, fo as to 
inveft the entire Capital which they 
have brought for that purpofe in 
their aforefaid Ship, in Slaves and 
to carry them away at once. 

On the 8th inftant, arrived here by 
way of Guinea^ Angola^ and Cayenne, 
the Ship Gideon, the bearer hereof, 
Simon Cornelijfen Gilde, Skipper, 
with over Three hundred Slaves. I 
was in hopes by means of thefe and 
the fupply of Slaves already here, 
to have enough to be able on the 
Advice and Order of the Com- 
pany, to accommodate the aforefaid 

( 212 ) 

Factors for their abovementioned 
Specie, as then was their intent ; for 
they faid, in cafe no feafonable advice 
or order was received from their 
Principals and the Company, that 
they would then contrad: with me 
for as many Slaves as were here at 
prefent, and might happen to arrive, 
to be paid for on delivery, in order 
to difpatch their aforefaid Ship, 
which was lying here at great 
expenfe. So they were expecting 
that they could have availed them- 
felves on this occalion, for their 
Velfel, of the Slaves brought hither 
by the aforefaid Ship Gideon, when 
the abovementioned Skipper Simon 
Cornelijfen Gilde brought me fuch 
ample Order and Inll:rud;ions to 
the contrary, that I could not dare 
to change them, as your Honors will 
pleafe to obferve by the annexed 
Copies. Purfuant to faid Orders 

( 213 ) 

I am fending to your Honors here- 
with, by the aforefaid Ship and 
Skipper the number of Slaves to be 
feen in the accompanying Invoice 
and Bill of Lading to which, for 
brevity's fake, I refer. 

And fince now, in the firft place, 
no more Slaves are to be expected 
here, the aforefaid Fadiors will 
have to content themfelves with the 
Slaves which have been previoufly 
brought hither on the Company's 
account ; and as many of the Slaves 
brought here by the faid Ship Gideon 
are infedted with Scurvy, I have 
therefore retained the greater num- 
ber of thefe here and embarked 
others in their place from among 
thofe brought in previous Ships. 
When thofe are cured of the Scurvy, 
they can be delivered, in the place 
of the others, to the aforefaid Fac- 

■#-/^i-c ^fC ^> ^f^ ^ ^fi 

[ 214- j 

Bill of Lading for Three Hun- 
dred Negroes fent to the 

5 Cornelijfe Gilde, Skipper under 
God of my Ship, named the Gideon^ 
now lying in the Harbor oi Curasao, 
ready to fail with the firft fair 
wind (which God fhall vouchfafe) 
for the Manhatans in New Nether- 
land acknowledge to have received 
between the Decks of my afore- 
faid Ship, the number of Three 
hundred Slaves, confifting of One 
hundred and Jixty Men and One 
hundred 2indi forty Women, all mer- 
chantable ; which Slaves I promife 
to deliver (if God grant me a prof- 
perous Voyage), with my aforefaid 
Ship at the faid Manhatans to the 

( 215 ) 

Hon'^'^ Director General Petrus 
Stuyvefant or his Order, on payment 
of my freight for the aforefaid 
Slaves, as agreed upon and condi- 
tioned by the Charter" Party, and 
for the performance of what pre- 
cedes, I pledge myfelf and all my 
Property and my aforefaid Ship with 
all its Appurtenances. In witnefs 
of the truth I have ligned three 
Invoices, all of the fame tenor, the 
one being fulfilled, the others are 
void. Written at Curasao, the 21 ft 
yuiy, Ano 1664. (Signed) 

Symon Cornelissen Gilde. 

( 2i6 ) 

DireSior Stuyvesant to Vice 
Dire&or Beck. 

Honorable, Prudent, Wife, and very 
Difcreet Sir. 

OUR laft Letter to you was by 
the Shi^The White Horfeman^ 
Skipper Hendrick Janfen Stuyvefant, 
dated the 7th May laft. * * * 

Since then, viz., on the 24th May, 
arrived here in fafety, God bepraifed, 
the Company's Ship Sparrow^ Skip- 
per Jan Peterfen Groot of Dockum, 
by whom I received your Honor's 
Letter of the 28th of April, to 
which the following will ferve as 
an anfwer. 

The Slaves and Merchandize ar- 
rived fafely according to Invoice 
and Bill of Lading. * * * 

I have fold the Negroes that have 
been fent, at Public auction to the 

( 217 ) 

higheft bidder, for Provifions, with 
the exception of Six of the Men, 
who are employed in the Compa- 
ny's fervice on the Works of the 
Fort, and Five Negro Women who, 
on account of their advanced Age, 
could not find a Purchafer, except 
at a very low figure. The remain- 
der have been fold at prices men- 
tioned in the annexed Copy of the 
Conditions of the Sale ; being, in 
our opinion, a tolerably fair price 
for fuch a lot. Had they been 
better, there is not a doubt but 
they would have produced a much 
larger amount, as may be inferred 
from the price of a few who were 
fold for 600 Guilders* and upwards. 
Thefe Negroes have afforded us 
great relief in the purchafe of Pro- 
vifions for the Garrifon. Otherwife, 



( 2.8 ) 

we fhould have been conftrained by 
the low ftate of the Treafury, caufed 
by the continued troubles, firft with 
the Barbarians, and now at prefent 
with the neighboring Englifh, to 
purchafe Supplies by Bills of Ex- 

:ii ^ r^ ^ :^ 

In our former difpatch, duplicate 
whereof we here inclofe, we ftated 
among other things, if it fhould 
come to pafs that Simon Gilde 
arrived at the Ifland of Curacao, 
with Negroes three weeks or a 
month later than intimated in the 
Charter Party, fay the middle of 
Auguft, therefore the fending of 
the Negroes hither fhould not be 
poftponed, &c. Having recon- 
fidered this, we have, for divers 
reafons, whereof one is, that the 
Right Honorable the Regents of 
the city of Atnjierda?n are interefted 

( 219 ) 

therein one fourth part, thought it 
beft and moft juftifiable, not to 
make the llighteft aheration in the 
Charter Party which the Dired:ors 
have concluded with Simon Gilde. 
Wherefore we requeft and recom- 
mend your Honor to regulate your- 
felf by the faid Charter Party in 
the forwarding of the abovemen- 
tioned Negroes. But as we find 
ourfelves burthened here by an 
unufually ftrong Garrifon, for the 
fupport of which, exclufive of the 
monthly pay, we require confider- 
able Provifions, for the purchafe 
whereof we are not well provided ; 
we, on that account, have need, yea 
great need of a few Slaves, in order 
to truck them for Provifions. Yet, 
for reafons already given, we deem 
it unjufl:ifiable to fend for the faid 
Negroes, contrary to the Charter 
Party concluded with Simon Gilde. 

( 220 ) 

Yet requiring a large quantity of 
Provifions both for this place and 
Curacao^ as we have already ftated 
and more fully explained, fliould 
an opportunity offer to purchafe 
any, funds would be abfolutely ne- 
celfary. Wherefore we recommend 
this ferioully to your confideration ; 
and if Smon Gilde arrive in feafon, 
to fend us as many Negroes as 
circumftances will permit. If Ne- 
groes be fcarce, which however we 
fliould prefer to have for the good 
and advancement of the country, 
according to the Hon^^'^ Company's 
Order, fome other effedis, either 
Money or Ofnaburghs and other 
coarfe Linen, or any thing elfe that 
is not needed for the public fervice, 
might be fpared and bartered for 
Provifions. If Negroes, your Honor 
will pleafe to bear in mind to have 
them fent off in time that they 

( 221 ) 

may probably arrive here before, 
or about All Saints, and that they 
be fuitably provided againft the 

30 July, 1694. 

The Council of New Nether land 

to the DireEiors at Amjler- 

'^ ^ -^ -^ ^ 

thanked, the Ship *S'^'. Jacob 
arrived here in fafety on the 1 3th 
inftant, from the South River, and, 
two days after, the Ship Gideon, 
which failed from Curasao on the 
2 1 ft of July with 300 Slaves, 160 
Men and 140 Women, whereof 9 
died on the palfage. This is a very 
poor lot ; indeed fo poor do we 
believe, that we fear the moft of 


( 222 

them will remain on our hands, or 
muft be let go at a very low figure, 
whereof more in our next. 

Purfuant to the Contradt which 
your Honors made with the Di- 
rectors of the City's Colonie, we 
have delivered by lot the fourth 
part of the abovementioned Negro 
Men and Women, into the hands 
of M'" Peter Alrichs, Commiflary 
of Indian Cargoes, and Councillor 
of the Colonie of New Atnjlel^ who 
has been here for fome time for 
the purpofe of purchaling Oxen, 
Cows and Horfes, to the number 
of 200 or thereabouts. * * * 

The Colonie has received by lot 
for its fourth part, 38 Men and 34 
Women. But as there were among 
thefe, as well as among thofe that 
fell to the Company, many above 
the age of 36 years, three of them 
muft be counted for two. * * * 

( 223 ) 

This ferves merely to advife your 
Honors of the arrival of the above- 
mentioned Negroes who. though a 
very poor lot, as already ftated, yet 
in our moft deplorable ftate, will 
wonderfully relieve us, fo that we 
and your Honors' Servants and 
Inhabitants, find ourfelves greatly 
obliged, and gratefully acknow- 
ledge your care in the fending of 
the faid Negroes. * * * * 
Fort Amjierdam in New Net her - 
land, ij Auguji, 1664. 

(By Way of the South River, per the Eagle.) 

Receipt for the above Neg?^^ 


WE the underfigned Director 
General and Council of New 
Netherla?id, hereby certify and de- 
clare that the bearer hereof, Symon 
CorneliJJht Glide , Skipper, under God^ 

( 224 ) 

of the Ship Gideon, on the day after 
his arrival, being the 14th of Auguft, 
hath delivered here on (hore for 
account of MelT^'^ the Directors of 
the Incorporated Weft India Com- 
pany, Chamber at Anijierdam, Two 
hundred and ninety head of Negroes, 
to wit. One hundred and Jifty three 
Men, ^nd One hundred and thirty 
feven Women, among whom in all 
were found by impartial Men as 
feledted according to the Charter 
Party, Eighty nine which were 
judged to be above Thirty Jix years 
old ; of which delivery, the above- 
mentioned Skipper, Syfiion Cornelijfen 
Gilde, demanding proper Receipt to 
ferve him agreeably to his Charter 
Party, with the abovementioned 
Directors, we have executed for 
him two of the fame tenor, one 
whereof being fatisfied, the other 
is to be null. Done Ajnjierdam in 

( 225 ) 

New Netherland, the 30 Augujiy 


Perinit to tranfport Neg 

THE Honbie Direftor General 
informed the Council that 
Capt. Thomas Willet would accept 
3 or 4 Negroes in payment of the 
Beavers due him by the Company, 
if he might tranfport them from 
this place to fuch other that he 
may think proper. Which being 
taken into coniideration, it was, on 
queftion being put, Refolved to let 
him have 3 or 4 Negroes ; becaufe 
from the low ftate of the Treafury, 
it is not well known how elfe 
to fatisfy him for the Provilions 
delivered lall; year, amounting to 
about Eight thoufaiid Guilders ; and 
Secretary Van Kuyven is deputed 
to inform faid Willet thereof, and to 

( 226 ) 

agree with him about the price for 
the beft advantage of the Company, 
and if poffible to obtain from him 
as much as the General hath lately 
had from him for two of his own 
Negroes. Done 30th Septe?nber, 

Vice DireBor Beck to Peter 

Curacao, in Fort Amjlerdam the | 
1 5 Novemb', Ano 1 664. J 


I HAVE remarked, among other 
things, in your Honor's accept- 
able Letter, the ferious miftake that 
has been committed here in the 
fale of your Slaves ; efpecially of 
the little Children, lince with great 

( 227 j 

forethought on the part of Madam 
Stuyvefant, your Honor's fpoufe, 
they were prefented at the baptifmal 
Font. If we had had the leaft 
knowledge of the Faft, the miftake 
would not have occurred. To my 
grief, a great error has been com- 
mitted which I fear is irreparable ; 
for fo long an interval has elapfed, 
it will be very difficult to afcertain 
where they have been finally landed. 
But I lliall have inquiries made by 
the firft Ship that leaves here for 
Carthagena and Porto Bello, and if 
it be poffible, endeavor to get them 
back, even if I Ihould have to give 
two full grown Slaves and more for 

( 228 

Vice DireBor Beck to Peter 

Curasao, i6 April, Ano 1665. 

A SHIP, named Mifs Catarina, 
whereof yacob Dirckfen Will- 
ree is Skipper, arrived here on the 
14^1^ January laft, from Ardra, on 
the Coaft of Guinea, with One hun- 
dred and ffty Slaves. She was fent 
in the Service of the Company from 
Amjlerdam to the Cajlle del Mina to 
Mr. Valckenhurgh with fome Sup- 
pUes for that place, and fucceeded 
very well, notwithftanding many 
English Ships were off that Coaft. 

Since my laft, I have fold here 

( 229 ) 

to the Genoefe [gemieefen] all the 
Slaves which had come here on 
the Company's account in the laft 
Ships and were remaining at this 
place (w, One himdred and twenty 
pieces of Eight. And becaufe of 
thefe Englifh troubles, and princi- 
pally becaufe no Slaves were expelled 
here from the Coaft of Guinea, the 
aforefaid Genoefe have taken their 
departure hence with their Ship 
and the abovementioned purchafed 
Slaves, on the 23d January laft for 
Carthagena. We fliall learn betimes 
whether this trade fliall be renewed 
in Holland with the Company, or 
whether it will be purfued and 
continued at this place by other 

I have, fince that, been informed 
that the Principals of the above- 
mentioned Genoefe in Spain have 
contracted with the Royal Company 

( 230 j 

oi England iov the delivery of Slaves, 
fuch delivery to be made at the 
Ifland oi Jamaica, and that a large 
Ship belonging to the faid Genoefe 
has already arrived at Jamaica, to 
carry away the Slaves, according to 
the Contract concluded with the 
Royal Company. But inafmuch 
as no Slaves had reached there for 
the Royal Company, they were 
allowed to purchafe as many Slaves 
from the Englifh Planters and In- 
habitants as they were to receive. 
In regard to this Contract, all 
Commiffions of Privateers and Ships 
againft the Spaniards in thefe Weji 
Indies are revoked, and they are 
forbidden to inflid: any damage 
on the Spanifh Nation by land or 
water ; and when a rich Spanifh 
Prize was brought by the Englifh 
Privateers into Jamaica, they were 
obliged to reftore her, free of cofts 
and charges. 


( 231 ) 

I doubt if this Englifh Royal 
Company will be able to fulfill 
their Contrad: with the Genoefe, 
if it be of any magnitude, in con- 
fequence of the difturbances and 
troubles caufed by themfelves on 
the Coaft of Guinea and the great 
obftrudtion they will encounter as 
long as thefe troubles continue, in 
their Slave Trade and in all their 
other Commerce, from the Priva- 
teers of Holland and Zealand, of 
which they have had, hitherto, no 

* * * * ^'< 

We fee now here for the fecond 
time a Comet with a long fiery 
tail ; it has been vilible here for 
more than two months paft. It is 
alfo vifible in Europe. What it 
portends is beft known only to the 
Chief Giver of all Good, who will 
mercifully turn away from us all 

( 232 ) 

well deferved plagues and punifh- 
ments, and make every thing tend 
to the honor of his Moft Holy 
Name for the Good of His People 
unto Salvation. 


A FFIDAVIT of Jan vafi Gaelen, 14; of Jan 
Rykartlen, 27 ; of Hans Marcuflfn Stuyve, 
35; of Adriaen Blaes, 45. 

Africa, Guinea Traders refort to, vii; private Dutch 
Traders not allowed to go to, xv; Trade to, 
opened to New Netherland, xxi; Colonifts of New 
Netherland permitted to bring Negroes from, 
103; Slaves to be taken to the Weft Indies from, 
103; and to New Netherland, 104, 107; a Ship 
fails from Medenblick to, for Slaves, 112; Ship 
Eyckenboom chartered to convey Slaves to New 
Netherland from, 132; Limits wherein private 
Merchants may trade for Slaves in, 170, 173; 
Inhabitants of New Netherland allowed to trade 
to, 172; hoftile Defigns of the Englifli on the 
Dutch Forts in, 207. 

African Company, Royal, contrad to fell Slaves, 

Africans introduced into New Netherland, xiii. 

Agriculture, the Slave Trade authorized for the 
Benefit of, xxvi, 107; Negroes imported into New 
Netherland for the Promotion of, 165, 168, 180, 

Alrichs, Peter, Slaves delivered to, 222. 


( 234 

Amandare, the firft Slave Ship in New Netherland, 
xvi; came probably from Brazil, xxiv; brings 
Negroes to New Netherland, 99. 

Ambofius, Highland of, 3, 46. 

America, Virginia Traders refort to, vii. 

Amfterdam City, owns Shares in a Slave Ship, 
xxvi; contrafts for a Cargo of Slaves, 195. 

Amfterdam Chamber of the W. 1. Co., informed 
of the Lofs of the Slaver St. John, and the Cap- 
ture of her Slaves, 78 ; authorizes the Importa- 
tion of Slaves into New Netherland, 108; direfts 
the Seizure of a Ship belonging to Medenblick 
that failed to Africa for Slaves, 112; contradls to 
fupply Slaves, 153, 160; orders a frefh Supply of 
Negroes to be fent to New Netherland, 184; 
determined to encourage the Slave Trade, 185; 
trades in Slaves, 195, 198. 

Angola, Blacks from, captured, ix, x, xi ; Trade 
from Holland to, xiii; Slaves obtained at, 91; 
Colonifts of New Netherland permitted to trade 
to, 101, 102; Slaves purchafed at, 195. 

d'Angola, Paul, xiii. 

Annebo, Ifland of, 6; Provifions for Slavers pur- 
chafed at, 7, 47. 

Arda, 2. 

Arms of Amfterdam, Journal of the Slaver, 87; 
captured by a Pirate, 93. 

Arobe, equivalent of the, 125. 

Aruba, 27, 49, 58. 

Aftembly of the XIX, Refolution of, 105. 

Audtion, Negroes fold at, xii, 168, 190, 193, 202, 

( 235 ) 

r> ACKER, Jacobus, 204. 

Barbadoes, a Dutch Slaver lofes fome Negroes 
at, xvi ; a Slave Emporium, xxix. 

Barley raifed in New Netherland, xviii. 

Beans raifed in New Netherland, xviii. 

Beaulieu, Captain, a Privateer, 84. 

Beaver, Price of, 203. 

Beck, Matthias, Vice Diredor of Cura9ao, fends 
Sloops to take Slaves off the wrecked St. John, 
8, 14, 41, 49; ifflies a Proclamation for the xAr- 
reft of Pirates, 69 ; Letters of, 78, 83 ; authorized 
to feize a Medenblick Slaver, 112; fupplies Span- 
iards with Slaves, 160; fends Negroes to New 
Netherland, 181, 205; ordered to fend a frefh 
Supply of Negroes to New Netherland, 182. 

Bedlo, Ifaac, 204. 

Beef, fait. Price of, 203. 

Bills of Lading for Negroes, 140, 176, 181, 214. 

Black Eagle, Ship, fails for New Netherland, 106. 

Blacks, the Weft India Company promife to fupply 
New Netherland with, xiv. 

Blaes, Adriaen, Skipper of the Slaver St. John, 5, 
17; Affidavit of, 45. 

Bloody Flux, Slaves fuffering from, 4; Surgeon De 
Lanoy dies of the, 6. 

Bonaire, 15, 48, 50. 

Bontemantel, J., Direflor of the Weft India Com- 
pany, 209. 

Brafil, Number of Slaves brought into, viii ; Effefl 
of the Conqueft of, on the Slave Trade, xi, xii; 
private Dutch Veffels not allowed to trade to, xv; 
Trade opened between New Netherland and. 


xix ; Slaves to be brought from, xx ; Colonifts 
of New Netherland permitted to trade to, loi; 
Negroes may be exported from, 106. 

Bread, Want of, on board the Slaver St. John, 8. 

Brommert, Captain, commands an Englifh Priva- 
teer, 93. 

Bruyn, Frans, 140; purchafes Slaves for Diredlor 
Stuyvefant, 144. 

/^ABO de Loop de Confalvo, 5 ; Slaver procures 

^^ Wood and Water at, 6, 47. 

Caerloff, Hendrick, builds a Fort for the Swedes at 

Cape Corfe, 174. 
Calabari, a Slave Mart, 45, 46. 
Cape Corfe, the Swedes build a Fort at, 174. 
Cape Verde, Negroes from, fold at Cura9ao, 154; 

Slaves received at Cura9ao from, 155; the Eng- 
lifh capture, 207, 
Caraccas, Operations of Pieterfen the Privateer at, 

21, 36, 37, 56, 57 ; Trade between Cura9ao and, 

113, 115, 117, 118. 
Carthagena, a Ship arrives for Slaves at Cura9ao 

from, 210; Slaves fent from Curajao to, 229. 
Cafteleyn, Anthony, 195. 
Caftle Frigate, Jan Pieterfen, a Dane, commands the 

Privateer, 18, 30, 40, 53, 69. 
Cayman Iflands, Pirates capture a Dutch Ship at the, 

Charter of a Ship for a Voyage to Africa and New 

Netherland, 132. 
Children, Number of, who died on board the Slaver 

St. John, 12. 

( 237 

Claeflen, Peter, cooper. Death of, 4; at Rio Cam- 
merones, 6. 

Colding, Situation of, 31. 

Colonies, Englifh, the Dutch introduce Slaves into 
the, vi ; to be fupplied with Slaves by the Dutch, 

Comet, a, vifible at Cura9ao and in Europe, 231. 

Conditions on which Negroes are to be fold by 
Audlion at New Arnfterdam, 193, 202. 

Congo, Simon, xiii. 

Contract made with the Directors at Arnfterdam 
for Slaves, 153, 160; to import Slaves into New 
Netherland, Draft of a, 169; for a Cargo of 
Slaves for New Netherland, 194. 

Copper, brought from the Spanifh Main, 118. 

Cormantyn, the Englifh build a Fort at, 174. 

CoufTeau, Jacques, 205. 

Couwenhoven, Peter, 175. , 

Cuba, Propofal to run Negroes into, 120; notfeafi- 
ble, 132. 

Cura9ao, Effeft of the Capture of, on the Slave 
Trade, xi, xii ; "^ Slave Emporium, xxix ; Slaver 
St, John fails for, 8 ; Crew of the St. John arrive 
at, 13; Slaves fent from Africa to, 91; a Ship 
fent from Medenblick to convey Slaves to, 112; 
Trade between the Spanifh Main and, 113, 154; 
Spaniards invited to trade at, 116, 117; the Slave 
Trade at, 121, 125, 126, 127; Slaves fent to 
New Netherland from, 140; Slaves brought from 
Guinea to, 143; weak State of, 157; Negroes 
fent to New Netherland from, 177, 178; a Ship 
from Carthagena arrives at, for Slaves, 210; 

( 238 

Slaves arrive at New Amfterdatn from, 221; 
fent to Carlhagena from, 229; a Comet vifible 
at, 231 (See Slave Trade). 

T^AVID'S Ifland, 21, 24, 30, 57. 

*^ Decker, Johan, de, 189, 193. 

De Groot, Arent, builds a Fort at Cormantyn, 

De Laet, Johannis, his Opinion of Blacks, ix. 

De Lanoy, Surgeon Martin, dies, 6. 

Delaware (See South River), 

Douwneman, Robert, a Pirate, captures a Dutch 
Ship and Cargo, 92. 

Dutch, the original Introducers of Slaves into the 
North American Colonics, vi ; did not place much 
Value on the Slave Trade at firft, xi ; Number of 
Slaves captured from the Spaniards by the, xii; 
additional Papers relative 10 the Slave Trade 
under the, 99 ; the chief Supporters of the Slave 
Trade, 104. 

Duty on Negroes, 171, 185, 194. 

PBBINGH, Jeronimus, 204. 

Edfal, Samuel, fends a crazy Negro to Virginia 
to be fold, 182. 

Elephants' Teeth brought from Africa, 31, 40, 65. 

Elizabeth's River, Virginia, 95. 

Elmina, i; bad Provifions fupplied at, 5; Johan 
Valckenburgh Diredlor at, 45 ; Slaver Arms of 
Amflerdam fails from, 90. 

Englifh, the, well fupplied in America with Provi- 
fions, xix ; Slaves to be exported by the Dutch to 

( 239 ) 

the, XXV ; have a Fort at Cormantyn, 174; Cap- 
ture Cape Verd, 207. 

Eyckenboom, Jan Janfen, of Hoorn, 133; conveys 
Negroes to New Netherland, 176. 

Eyckenboom, Ship, chartered to carry Slaves from 
Africa to New Netherland, 132; arrives at New 
Amfterdam with Horfes and Negroes, 178. 

PAITH, the Ship, 192. 

Fayal, Negroes fent to, x. 

Florida, no private Dutch Veflel allowed to trade 
North of, XV. 

Foreeft, Ifaac, 204. 

Fofcom, Mr., 89; his Bark arrives at New Amfter- 
dam from Virginia, 95. 

Francifco, John, xiii. 

Frederick, Prince, Declaration of one of the Magif- 
trates of Amfterdam to, 104. 

Freedoms to Patroons, encourage Agriculture in New 
Netherland, xviii. 

Friar Francis, trades with the Dutch at Cura9ao, 
124, 125, 126. 

Froon, Johan, Commiffary on board the St. John, 45. 

QABRIE, Thimotheus, 175, 204. 

^■"^ Genoefe, the, trade for Slaves at Curasao, 210, 
21 1, 229. 

Gey, Captain, commands an Englifh Privateer, 93. 

Gideon, Ship, xxiv, 147; carries Slaves to Cura9ao, 
155: fent to Africa for Slaves, 196, 198, 201, 
207; arrives at Cura9ao, 21 1; arrives at Man- 
hattans with 300 Slaves, 221. 

( 240 ) 

Gilde, Symon C, 122; fells Negroes at Cura9ao, 
126; contradls to convey Slaves from Africa to 
New Netherland, 198, 201; commands Ship 
Gideon, 147, 149; contrafts to convey 300 
Slaves to the Manhatans, 214; Receipt for them 
to, 223. 

Gilded Eagle, Ship, 192. 

Groot, Jan Pieterfen, Skipper of the Ship Sparrow, 
141 ; brings Slaves to the Manhattans, 216; (See 

Guinea, Slaves brought by the Dutch from, vii, xxiv, 
28, 35, 79; a Cargo of Negroes arrives in New 
Netherland froin, no, 179; Slaves taken to 
Cura9ao from, 147; Ship Gideon arrives with 
Slaves from, 21 1, 228. 

TIJACK, Nicolas, Secretary of Cura9ao, 27, 34, 

^^ 4,4r, 68, 162. 

Havana, Vice Diredlor Beck writes to the Governor 

of, 152. 
Heermans, Auguftine, 142, 146. 
Hifpaniola, Spanifh Veflels captured off, x. 
Holland, Courfe of Trade between Africa and, 

Horfes and Negroes arrive at New Netherland from 

Curasao, 178; Lofs fuftained in New Netherland 

by the Sale of, 187. 

INFORMATION refpeding the Capture of the 

Slaves on board the St. John, 14. 
Introdudion of Slavery into New Netherland, 

( 24-1 

JACQUES (See Van Cue/en). 
Jamaica, Sea Rovers arrive at, 85; Slaves to be 

furnifhed at, 230. 
Janfen, Skipper Dirck, carries Negroes to New 

Netherland, 181. 
Janfen, Skipper Ewout, 153. 
Jews, in purchafing Slaves, Chriftians ought to be 

preferred to unbelieving, 165. 
Journal of the Slaver St. John, i ; of the Slaver Arms 

of Amfterdam, 87. 

1Z"ING Solomon, Ship, 78; arrives at Cura9ao 

with Slaves, 143. 
Kregier, Martin, 175. 

T A Garce, Privateer, vifits New Amfterdam, 

La Montagne, Mr., no. 

Laurence, John, 204. 

Leeuw, Peter de, 26, 34, 44, 68. 

Letters of Vice Direftor Beck to the Weft India 
Company, 78, 113, 124, 147; to Direftor Stuy- 
vefant, 83; of the Diredlors at Amfterdam to 
Direftor Stuyvefant, 99, 101, 103, 106, 167, 
183, 198, 207. 

Leyfeler, Jacob, 204. 

Limits wherein private Perfons may trade for Slaves 
in Africa, 170, 173. 

Lift of Slaves who died on the Paflage from Africa 
to Cura9ao, 10. 

Loando, reduced by the Dutch, xii ; EfFedl of the 


( 242 ) 

Reduction, xv; a Slave Mart, 91; Slaves carried 

to New Netherland from, 198. 
Loocquermans, Govert, 175, 205. 
Lord, Richard, purchafes a Negro, 1 00. 
Lubbertfen, Frederick, fells a Negro to Richard Lord, 

Lucaflen, Theunis, 26. 

A/TAERSCHALCK, William, 205. 

^^^ Man, Edward, Direftor of the Weft India 
Company, 132, 186. 

Manhattan, the firft Slaves brought to, xiii ; Inhabit- 
ants of, permitted to bring Negroes from Africa, 
102; Slaves to be brought from Africa to, 196, 
207; Inftruftions regarding Slaves for, 208 ; three 
hundred Slaves fent to, 214. 

Maria of London, a Pirate, commanded by Capt. 
Douwneman, 92; burnt, 94. 

Matthias, Henricus, contrafts to deliver Negroes at 
Cura9ao, 121, 122. 

Medenblick, a Ship fails to Africa from, for Slaves, 
1 12. 

Men, Number of, who died on board the Slaver St. 
John, 12. 

Merchants of New Amfterdam remonftrate againft 
the Reftridions on the Slave Trade, 171. 

Meyer, Nicolas de, 204. 

Michielfen van Hulft, Martin, 62. 

Mifs Catarina, Ship, brings Slaves from Guinea to 
Cura9ao, 228. 

Momma, Guillaume, contradls to fupply Slaves, 153, 
155, 161. 

( 2+3 ) 

Montferrat, 94. 
Myndertfen, Egbert, 205. 

AJANCIMON (Va.), 95. 

Negroes, firll introduced into the Colonies, 
vii; little valued by the Dutch, ix, x, xi; Num- 
ber of, captured by the Dutch, xii ; fold for Pork 
and Peas, xvi ; brought by Privateers into New 
Amfterdam, xxiii; fome luily, about to be fent 
to Direftor Stuyvefant, 86; two killed, 93; the 
Direftors at Amfterdam promife to fupply New 
Netherland with more, 99; Bill of Sale of a, loo; 
New Netherland permitted to fend to Africa for, 
102, 103; taken as Prizes, may be exported 
from Brazil, 105; Duties on, 106; Spaniards 
invited to Cura9ao to purchafe, 116, 119; to be 
run into Cuba, 120; Trade at Cura9ao in, 121, 
122; Price of, 123, 125, 126, 130, 143, 145, 
146, 155, 161, 162, 164, 188, 204, 205, 217, 
229; how to be run into the Spanifh Main, 128; 
Royalty in the Spanifh Colonies on, ibid. ; Bill of 
Lading for, 140, 176, 181, 214; Trade in, re- 
ferved by the Weft India Company, 143 ; ordered 
to be fent to New Netherland, 145; a fine Lot 
of, loft, 148; fold at Cura9ao to Spaniards, 154; 
Chriftians ought to be preferred to Spaniards and 
Jews in purchafmg, 165; for New Netherland 
ought to be ftout Fellows, 166; to be employed 
in the War againft the Indians, ib. ; to be fold at 
public Audion in New Amfterdam, 168; Duty 
on, 171 ; from Cura9ao arrive at New Amfter- 
dam, 177, 178, 180; a crazy, exported to Vir- 

44 ) 

ginia, 182; a frefh Supply of, ordered to New 
Netherland, 182; Duty on exported, 185; fold 
at Auftion, 190, 193, 202, 216; and held as 
Bond Slaves, 194; imported from Africa into 
New Netherland, 201, 216; Receipt for, 223; 
Thomas Willet permitted to export, 225 ; (See 

New Amftel, Slaves fent to, 222. 

New Amftel, Galiot, commanded by Auguftine 
Heermans, 142. 

New Amfterdam, Negroes brought to, xiv, xvi; 
Privateers bring Slaves into, xxii, xxiii ; Slaves 
brought from Guinea to, xxiv ; owns Slaves, xxvi; 
a Veffel from Virginia arrives at, 95, Remon- 
ftrance of Merchants of, againft Reftriftions on 
the Slave Trade, 171 ; Horfes and Negroes arrive 
at, 178; Negroes to be fold by Auftion at, 189, 
193, 202; (See Matihattati). 

New France, private Dutch Veflels not allowed to 
trade to, xv. 

New Jerfey, Slavery firft noted in, xv. 

New Netherland, Slavery not greatly encouraged at 
firft in, xi; Hiftory of the Introdudion of Slavery 
into, xiii; private Dutch Veflels not allowed to 
trade to, xv; lirft Slave Ship arrives in, xvi j the 
Slave Trade to be revived by Means of, xviii ; 
Produfts of, xviii; Trade to Brazil opened to, 
xix; Slaves to be carried from Brazil to, xx; 
Trade to Africa opened tOj xxi ; when Slaves 
began to be regularly imported into, xxii ; Weft 
India Company refolve that Slaves fliall be kept in, 
xxv; never engaged in the African Slave Trade, 

( 24-5 

xxvi ; Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of, loo; 
Trade to Brazil and Africa opened to, loi; per- 
mitted to bring Negroes from Africa, 102; Cargo 
of Slaves to be taken to, 104, 107, 108 ; and arrives 
at, 109 ; Slaves exported to Virginia from, ili; 
Ship chartered to convey Slaves from Africa to, 
132; Slaves fent from Cura9ao to, 140; what 
Sort of Negroes are defirable for, 166; Draft of 
a Contract to import Slaves into, 169; Slave- 
Trade opened to the Inhabitants of, 172; Negroes 
fent from Cura9ao to, 177, 178, 181; a frefh 
Supply of Negroes ordered to be fent to, 184; 
Contract for a Cargo of Slaves for, 194, 198. 

New Netherland Indian, Ship, conveys Negroes to 
New Netherland, 181. 

New Spain, Trade between Cura9ao and, 159. 

Nuchteren, Jan Gerritfen, Skipper of the Arms of 
Amfterdam, Death of, go. 

ORDINANCE impofmg a Duty on Slaves ex- 
^'^ ported from New Netherland, 109. 
Oftrich, Ship, Hides and Tobacco fent from Cura- 
930 to Holland by the, 125. 

pADRE, a Spanifh, purchafes Negroes and Mer- 

chandize at Cura9ao, 124, 125, 126. 
Patacoon, Value of a, 145. 

Patroons, Blacks promifed to, xiv ; undertake Agri- 
culture in New Netherland, xviii. 
Peafe, raifed in New Netherland, xviii ; Price of, 203. 
Pergens, Jacob, 194. 
Permit to export Negroes, 225. 

( H6 ) 

Pernambuco, the Reduftion of, the great Stimulant 

to the Dutch Slave Trade, xi. 
Pickled Herring, a Privateer, vifits New Netherland, 

Pieterfen, Heftor, contradls to fupply Slaves, 153, 

Pieterfen, Jacob, joins the Privateers, 43, 60, 73. 
Pieteifen, Jan, a Privateer, captures a Dutch Sloop, 

I 5 ; commands the Caftle Frigate, 1 8 ; Operations 

of, at Caraccas, 2 1 ; feizes Negroes belonging to 

the Weft India Company, 24, 30, 53, 61 ; Pro- 
clamation for the Arreft of, 69 ; denounced as a 

Pirate, 72. 
Pieterfen, Jan, Skipper of the Ship Sphera Mundi, 

conveys Slaves to New Netherland, 140, 142; 

(See Groot'). 
Pirate, Proclamation for the Arreft of Jan Pieterfen, 

a, 69. 
Pocahontas, vi. 
Polhemus, Domine, 204. 
Population of New Netherland, the Slave Trade 

tends to increafe the, 108. 
Pork, Price of, 203. 
Porto Bello, Slaves fupplied from Cura9ao to, 155, 

Porto Cabelho, 118. 
Porto Velo, chief Place of Trade on the Spanifh 

Main, 128 ; propofed Trade in Negroes at, 129. 
Portuguefe, x-^nthony, xiii. 
Price of Negroes, xi, xii, 123, 125, 126, 130, 143, 

145, 146, 155, 161, 162, 164, 188, 204, 205, 

217, 224. 

247 ) 

Price of Wheat, Peafe and Rye, 203. 

Privateer, a, brings Slaves into New Amfterdam, 
xxii; captures Veffcis and Slaves belonging to 
the Dutch, 9, 15, 24, 30, 35, 51, 53; French 
and Englifh vifit Cura9ao, 157; (See Pieterjen). 

Proclamation for the Capture oi Jan Pieterfen, a 
Rover, 69. 

"D AINS, heavy, in Africa, 4. 
^ Receipt of a Spanifh Trader for Slaves, 160. 

Remonrtrance againll the Reftridions prefcribed to 
private Parties engaged in the Slave Trade, 171. 

Refolution of the Affcmbly of the XIX, 105 ; of the 
Amfterdam Chamber, 108; of the Director and 
Council of New Netherland, permitting Negroes 
to betaken to Virginia, ill; to fell Negroes at 
public Auflion, 189, 193. 

Ridder, Paulus Heyn, Pilot of the Slaver Arms of 
Amfterdam, Affidavit of, 89. 

Rio Cammerones, 4, 46; Peter Claeflen dies at, 6. 

Rio Reael, i, 2; Slaves purchafed at, 3, 45. 

Rocus, Slaver St. John loft on the Rifts of, 8, 13, 14. 

Roeters, Hendrick, Schepen of Amfterdam, 195. 

Rolfe, John, vi. 

Rombouts, Johan, 120. 

Roofa, Gyfbert, 34, 44, 68 ; authorized to recover 
a Ship captured by Pirates, and taken into Ha- 
vana, 152. 

Rovers, a Veflel fent in Purfuit of, 81 ; arrive at Ja- 
maica, 85; Vice Diredor Beck unfucceflTul in his 
Efforts to overtake the, 148; arretted at Havana, 
152; (See Privateer). 

( 2+8 ) 

Royal African Company, contraft to deliver Slaves 

at Jamaica, 230. 
Royalty in the Spanidi Colonies on Negroes, 128, 
Rudolphus, Pieter, 175. 
Ryckartfen, Jan, Skipper of the Young Brindled 

Cow, 22, 50, 58, 59, 61 ; Affidavit of, in regard 

to a Privateer feizing Slaves, &c., belonging to the 

Dutch, 27. 
Rye, produced in New Netherland, xviii; Price of, 


CTA Cruz, a Genoefe Ship, arrives at Cura9ao for 

^ Slaves, 210. 

Sta. Martha, a Spanifli Veflel taken off, x. 

St. Catharine, a Spanifh Ship, trades at Cura9ao, 

St. Jago de Cuba, the Dutch Trade to, 152. 
St. John, Slaver, Journal of, i ; Wreck of the, 8, 

13, 48; Information refpefting the Capture of 

the Slaves on board the, 14; her lofs announced 

to the Diredlors at Amfterdam, 147. 
Schaeff, Henrick, N. P., 132. 
Scharburgh, Edward, carries Slaves to Virginia from 

New Netherland, in. 
Scurvy, Slaves on the Paflage from Guinea afFedled 

with, 213. 
Ships, Englilh, capture a Dutch Slaver, 92. 
Sille, Nicafius de, 110, 189, 193. 
Slaver, St. John, Journal of, i ; Wreck of, 8, 48; 

Arms of Amfterdam, Journal of, 87 ; captured 

by a Pirate, 93. 
Slavery, Hiftory of the Introdudlion into New 

( 249 

Netherland of, xiii; in New Jerfey, xv; Benefits 
expeded to be derived from, xx, xxi. 
Slaves, firft Introdu6lion into the American Colonies 
of, vi; the Number of, brought into Brazil in four 
Years, viii ; Prices of, in Brazil, xi; the firft 
brought to New Netherland, xiii ; to be brought 
to New Netherland from Brazil, xx ; Benefit to 
be derived from, xxi ; when regularly imported 
into New Netherland, xxii ; to be kept in New 
Netherland, and fupplied to the Englifh, xxv; 
Dutch trade in Africa for, i, et feq. ; Num- 
ber of on board St. John, 5 ; Lift of thofe who 
died on the Paflage, 10; a, jumps overboard the 
Slaver St. John, 1 1 ; Information refpedling the 
Capture of the, on board the St. John, 14; 
Number of, captured by a Privateer, 3 1 , 40, 65 ; 
fuffer great Mifery, and die on the Paflage for 
Want of Food, 47, 79; obtained at Loango, 91 ; 
to be conveyed to the Weft Indies from Africa, 
103; and to New Netherland, 104, 107; Duty 
on exported, 109; imported at New Amfterdam 
from Africa, carried thence without any Benefit 
to the Country, 1 10; exported from New Nether- 
land to Virginia, 1 1 1 ; a Ship fails from Meden- 
bhck for, 112; brought from Guinea to Cura9ao, 
143 ; fent to New Netherland, 144; Receipt of 
a Spanifh Trader for, 160; Draft of a Contrafl 
to import into New Netherland, 169; Inhabitants 
of New Netherland permitted to import, 172; 
ordered to be exported to the Englifh Colonies, 
184; Prices of, in New Netherland, 188, 197 
(fee Prices) ; Contraft for a Cargo of, to be de- 


( 250 ) 

livered in New Netherland, 194, 198; arrive at 
New Amfterdam from Cura9ao, 205, 216; Ship 
Gideon brings 300 from Guinea, 211; affefted 
with Scurvy, 213; arrive at New Amfterdam, 
221, 224; (See Negroes'). 

Slave Ship, the firft in New Netherland, xvi. 

Slave Trade, Courfe of the Dutch, xiii ; lies dor- 
mant, xvii ; New Netherland never diredlly en- 
gaged in the African, xxvi ; Horrors of the, 
xxviii; additional Papers relative to the Dutch, 99; 
the Dutch the chief Supporters of the, 104; at 
Cura9ao, 121, 125, 126, 127, 129, 153, 154, 
159, 210; the only Bait to allure the Spaniards 
to trade with the Dutch, 151 ; open to private 
Merchants, 167; Limits prefcribed to private 
Parties engaged in the, 170, 173; beneficial to 
Agriculture and Commerce, 1 85 ; to be encouraged, 
186; the Amfterdam Directors engage in, 195, 

Sorilho, Capt. Pedro, 153. 

Soutberg, Ship, captures a Cargo of Slaves, xi. 

South River, Slaves purchafed in Africa for the, 200. 

Spain, the Dutch Weft India Company commence 
Hoftilities againft, viii. 

Spaniards invited to trade at Cura9ao, 116, 118; 
propofe to purchafe Negroes there, 122; Slaves 
fold at Cura9ao to, 143; purchafe Negroes at 
Cura9ao, 153, 154; Receipt of, for Slaves, 160; 
Ceflation of Hoftilities againft the, 230. 

Spanifti Main, Royalty on Negroes at the, 128. 

Sparrow, Ship, brings Slaves to New Amfterdam, 
205, 216. 

( 251 

Spera Mundi, Ship, 83 ; conveys Negroes to New 
Netherland, 140, 142, 162. 

Steendam, Jacob, 175. 

Steenwyck, Cornelius, 175. 

Stevenfen, Oloff, 175. 

Strycker, Jacob, 175. 

Stuyve, Skipper Hans MarculTen, 14, 20, 23, 29, 
49; his Veflel taken by a Privateer, 32; his Affi- 
davit, 35. 

Stuyvefant, Skipper Hendrick Janfen, 216. 

Stuyvefant, Direftor Peter, informed of the Lofs of 
the Slaver St. John, 84; Vice Diredor Beck 
promifes him fome lufty Negroes, 86; Letters of 

' the Amfterdam Direftors to, 99, loi, 103, 106, 
167, 183, 198, 207 ; Negroes purchafed for, 
140, 144; acknowledges Receipt of Negroes, 163; 
inilrudled to fell Negroes at public Auftion, 168; 
three hundred Slaves configned to, 215; fends 
Slaves to Cura9ao to be fold, 226. 

Stuyvefant, Mrs., baptized Negro Children belonging 
to, fent to Cura9ao and fold to Spaniards, 227. 

Swedes build a Fort at Cape Corfe, 174. 

Sweerts, Jan, & Co., allowed to carry a Cargo of 
Slaves to New Netherland, 107, 108. 

npAMANDARE, Ship ; (See Amandare). 

"*• Tamarinds provided for Slaves, 2. 
Tayfpil, Johan, 195. 
Terneur, Daniel, 204. 
Tobago, Ifland of, 7 ; Slaver St. John arrives at, 8, 

Trade to the Spanifh Colonies not permitted, 1 1 f ; 


( 252 ) 

in Negroes, referved to the Dutch Weft India 
Company, 143; (See iSZ^w/). 
Troxxilla, Pedro Diez, his Receipt for Slaves, 160. 


NITED States, the Dutch introduce Slaves into 
the Territory, now the, vi. 


TTALCKENBURCH, Johan, Direftor at Elmi 
^ I, 45, 64, 91, 228. 

Van Baerle, David, 209. 

Van Brugge, Carel, 205. 

Van Brugh, Commiflary, Slaves purchafed for, 144. 

Van Cortlandt; (See Stevenfen). 

Van Cuelen, Leendert Jacques, Affiftant Commiflary 
on board the Slaver Arms of Amllerdam, 89. 

Van Dort, Admiral, Operations of, ix. 

Vande Grift,- Paulus Leendertfen, 175, 204. 

Vander Kemp, Dr., 104. 

Vander Veer, Hendrick Janfen, 175. 

Van Diemen, Claes, Death of, 2. 

Van Efs, Balthazar, i 20. 

Van Gaelen, Jan, Affidavit of, 14; taken Prifcner, 
35-51. 55. 

Van Heuflen, Jafper, i. 

Van Ool, Cornelis, Price paid for Negroes by, 164. 

Van Ruyven, Laurence, 144, 162. 

Van Ruyven, Secretary, Slaves purchafed for, 144. 

Van Tienhoven, Cornelis, Secretary of New Nether- 
land, 100. 

Verleth, Nicolas, 204. 

Verveelen, Johannes, 175, 204. 

Vincent, Adriaen, 205. 

I 253 j 

Virginia^ the Dutch introduce Slaves into, vi. vii; 
private Dutch Ships not allowed to trade to, xv ; 
a Dutch Slaver carried into, xxix, 94; a Veffel 
arrives at New Amftcrdam from, 95; a crazy- 
Negro Tent from New Amfterdam to, 182. 

"\X7'EST India Company, Dutch, eftablifhed, vii; 
promifes to fupply New Netherland with 
Blacks, xiv; Dullnefs of the Slave Trade injurious 
to the, xvii; refolves to fupply the Colonies with 
Slaves, XXV ; refcrves to itfelf the Trade in Negroes, 
143; fends a Cargo of Slaves to Curasao, 228. 

Weft Indies, Dutch Merchants authorized to convey 
Slaves to the, 103; Hoftilities againft the Span- 
iards in the, ordered to ceafe, 230. 

Wheat, raifed in New Netherland, xviii; Price of, 

Willet, Thomas, 204; permitted to export Negroes, 

Wilmerdonx, Abraham, Direilor of the Weft India 

Company, 132, 194. 
Willree, Jacob Dirckfen, Skipper of the Ship Cata- 

rina, brings Slaves from Guinea, 228. 
Witfen, C, 186. 
Wittepaert, Dirck Pieterfen, fends a Cargo of Slaves 

to New Netherland, 107, 108. ., 

Wittepaert, Ship, xxiv; fent to Africa for Slaves'' 

for New Netherland, 107, 108; arrives in New 

Netherland from Guinea with Negroes, 1 10. 
Women, Number of, who died on board the Slaver 

St. John, 12. 
Wreck of the Slaver St. John, 8, 48. 


254- ) 

"VT'OUNG Brindled Cow, the Bark, fent to fave the 
■*■ Slaves wrecked at Rocus, 22, 50, 57. 
Young Oftrich, a Dutch Veflel, captured by a Rover, 



P. 73, Line 2, for Jan read Jacob. 

205, " 1, for Coujfeaa, read Coujfeau. 
221, " 5, for 1694, read 1664.